or ndgaloka of the eastern mountains). The Pur anas merely place Cosa- laka ' behind the Vindhya mountains* ; but we are now able from the best of all possible authorities to restore its correct position ; and it would seem even that part of the Sanskrit appellation has been preserved to this day in the name of the large artificial tank, around which Mr. Kittoe tells us the remains of an ancient city are still visible ; for the tank is called the Kounsla gung, or Kosala ganga ; though a very different account of the origin of its name is given by the present inhabitants. Tusha and kushala, it should be remarked, both signify pleasure, happiness, in Sanskrit. The burthen of the proclamation seems to be contained in the sen- tence immediately following, and of this by our usual good fortune we have two copies to collate together ; for, as far as the mutilated con- dition of the last tablet permits us to compare them, the two seem literatim the same : ]st. Am kichhi dahhtj mi hannatn, tarn ichhami kalinam .. na patipadayeham ; 2nd. Am kichhi dakhami ha 1st. duvalatecha alabheham : esa cha me mokhyamate duva. 2nd. duvalate cha alabheham : esa cha me mokhya mate duvala. 1st. .. si.... si an tuphe, &c. 2nd. Etasi athasi an tuphe, &c. In translating this important passage I have been divided between two interpretations both equally sanctioned by the pandit ; — first, 1 Whomsoever I discover to be a murderer him do I desire to be im- prisoned : — this do I publicly notify, and (if guilty) a second time I put him to death. And this (will be) a source of two-fold final beatitude to me.' The principal objections to this reading are, first that du is never used in this dialect for dwi or duwd (which would be written di, or duwd)> but for duh or dur, hard : and second that nioksha is written moJcha not mokhya as appears in both the instances before us. The second reading requires several changes of letters where they are however very clear on the stone, or at least in the copy made by Mr. Kittoe. " Whatsoever I say that I desire to be carried into effect, — this do I declare : and I execute it in spite of all opposition ; and this my supreme will is irresistible."
- See Wilford's Essay, Asiatic Researches, VIII, 337,338.