Page:Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Volume 1 (2nd edition).djvu/274

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?4? Notice o? Khoten. low value. Uncoined gold ill grains and masses is also a medium of bargain and sale. ' It is not possible to ascertain or even to make any probable estimate of the amount of the revenue drawn by China from Kho- ten annually; but there are two direct taxes, viz. the Alban, or poll tax, varying in assessment, as it would seem, according to the age of the individual, but of which I can obtain no classification,-- and a second on the produce of the land, from which garden fruits are exempted, as also is silk; but grain of every kind, and cotton, are taken in the proportion of one-tenth of the whole yield for the use of the emperor. ' Khoten receives from Russia, broad cloths, a fine cloth manu- factured at Astrakhan from the wool of the camel foal (of .the first year), seal skins and other furs, green velvet, gold and silver thread for embroidery, Bulgar leather, hardware--amongst which are spades or hoes,--!ogwood, sugar in loaf, and castor,--the latter being used as a medicine for children. ? Khoten returns to Russia.--but through the intervention of Tooranee traders,--silk cloths, raw silk, and cotton thread. ' Raw silk, both white and yellow, is first taken to Bokhara, there dyed of vations colours, purchased by Nogaee traders, and transported across the great Kirghiz steppe to various parts of Russia. No fewer than a thousand camel-loads of undyed cotton thread are said to be also furnished to Russia by Khoten annually. ' From Bokhara, Khoten receives various commodities, but the principal consists of horses of a large size, of which about five hundred are annually imported. ' To Bokhara, Khoten sends silk goods, raw silk (although Bokhara itself raises much of this article), and coarse cottons, along with felts. ' To Yarkund, Indejan, Eela, and Aksoo, Khoten furnishes cotton and silk goods, as well as raw silk and cotton thread. Yar- kund also takes off vast quantities of sheep-wool, which is there worked into felts, and, in return, sends rice and cast-iron pots for kitchen use. ' From Eela and Aksoo, Khoten receives droves of horses bred by the Kahnuks. ' To Eela alone Khoten sends, yearly, from two to three hun- died thousand bales of a coarse cotton cloth like guzzee; the length of each piece is from seven to eight gurz (say yards), the breadth about twelve giruhs, and the mon? price is a rupee. At Eela these cloths are sold to the Kalmuks for money or bartered against cattle. About fifty thousand sheep are annually brought by the Kalmuks to Eela, and the rate of value in exchange adopted is one piece of cotton cloth for a sheep, three for a cow, and six for a horse. Digitized by Google