Page:Koran - Rodwell - 2nd ed.djvu/21

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5
Preface


Jahl the Sura xcii. p. 32, refers)—struggles with Meccan unbelief and idolatry foliowed by a period during which probably he had the second vision, Sura liii. p. 69, and was listened to and respected as a person “possessed” (Sura lxix. 42, p. 60, lii. 29, p. 64)—the first emigration to Abyssinia in A.D. 616, in consequence of the Meccan persecutions brought on by his now open attacks upon idolatry (Taghout)—increasing reference to Jewish and Christian histories, shewing that much time had been devoted to their study—the conversion of Omar in 617—the journey to the Thaquifites at Taief in A.D. 620—the intercourse with pilgrims from Medina, who believed in Islam, and spread the knowledge thereof in their native town, in the same year—the vision of the midnight journey to Jerusalem and the Heavens—the meetings by night at Acaba, a mountain near Mecca, in the 11th year of his mission, and the pledges of fealty there given to him—command given to the believers to emigrate to Yathrib, henceforth Medinat-et-nabi (the city of the prophet) or El-Medina (the city) in April of A.D. 622—the escape of Muhammad and Abu Bekr from Mecca to the cave of Thaur—the flight to Medina in June 20, A.D. 622—treaties made with Christian tribes—increasing, but still very imperfect acquaintance with Christian doctrines—the Battle of Bedr in Hej. 2, and of Ohod—the coalition formed against Muhammad by the Jews and idolatrous Arabians, issuing in the siege of Medina, Hej. 5 (A.D. 627)—the convention, with reference to the liberty of making the pilgrimage, of Hudaibiya, Hej. 6—the embassy to Chosroes King of Persia in the same year, to the Governor of Egypt and to the King of Abyssinia, desiring them to embrace Islam—the conquest of several Jewish tribes, the most important of which was that of Chaibar in Hej. 7, a year marked by the embassy sent to Heraclius, then in Syria, on his return from the Persian campaign, and by a solemn and peaceful pilgrimage to Mecca—the triumphant entry into Mecca in Hej. 8 (A.D. 630), and the demolition of the idols of the Caaba—the submission of the Christians of Nedjran, of Aila on the Red Sea, and of Taief, etc., in Hej. 9, called “the year of embassies or deputations” from the numerous deputations which flocked to Mecca proffering submission—and lastly in Hej. 10, the submission of Hadramont, Yemen, the greater part of the southern and eastern provinces of Arabia—and the final solemn pilgrimage to Mecca.

While, however, there, is no great difficulty in ascertaining the Suras which stand in connection with the more salient