THE PARTICIPLES 1 63
a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active par- ticiple. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other verbs. b. Give the participles of c5nor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior. . Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows:
. The present active participle corresponds to the English present
active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb ; as, militgs insequentgs c6p6runt multOs, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on together. . The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly pas- sive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without the auxiliary having been ; as, auditus, heard or having been heard. . The future active participle, translated about to, etc, denotes time after the action of the main verb. . Review §§ 203, 204, and note the following model sentences:
. Milites currentes erant defessi, the soldiers who were running (lit.
running) were weary. . Caesar profectiirus R5inam n5n exspectavit, Ccesar, when about to set out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait. . Oppidom captum vidimus, we saw the town which had been cap- tured (lit. captured town). . Imperitor triduttm moratus profectus est, the general, since [when, or after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out. . MnitSs victi terga n6n vertenmt, the soldiers, though they were conquered (lit the soldiers conquered), did not retreat. In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually re- quires a clause banning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will best bring out the thought and do not, as a rule, translate the participle literally.