In b the subject is the army. The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative absolute in Latin, and we translate,
Gallīs ā Caesare victīs exercitus domum revertit
Note 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active participle (cf. § 375. a) often compels a change of voice when translating from one language to the other. For example, we can translate Cæsar having encouraged the legions just as it stands, because hortor is a deponent verb. But if we wish to say Cæsar having conquered the Gauls, we have to change the voice of the participle to the passive because vincō is not deponent, and say, the Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar (see translation above).
I. 1. Māvīs, nōn vīs, vultis, nōlumus. 2. Ut nōlit, ut vellēmus, ut mālit. 3. Nōlī, velle, nōluisse, mālle. 4. Vult, māvultis, ut nōllet, nōlīte. 5. Sōle oriente, avēs cantāre incēpērunt.Clāmōribus audītīs, barbarī prōgredī recūsābant. 7. Caesare legiōnēs hortātō, mīlitēs paulō fortius pugnāvērunt. 8. Hīs rēbus cognitīs, Helvētiī fīnitimīs persuāsērunt ut sēcum iter facerent. 9. Labōribus cōnfectīs, mīlitēs ā Caesare quaerēbant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Conciliō convocātō, prīncipēs ita respondērunt. 11. Dux plūrīs diēs in Helvētiōrum fīnibus morāns multōs vīcōs incendit. 12. Magnitūdine Germānōrum cognitā, quīdam ex Rōmānis timēbant. 13. Mercātōribus rogātīs, Caesar nihilō plūs reperīre potuit.
II. 1. He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they had preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Cæsar, when he heard the rumor (the rumor having been heard), commanded (imperāre) the legions to advance more quickly. 5. Since Cæsar was leader, the men were willing to make the journey. 6. A few, terrified by the reports which they had heard, preferred to remain at home. 7. After these had been left behind, the rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Cæsar had undertaken the business (Cæsar, the business having been undertaken), he was unwilling to delay longer.
- Would the ablative absolute be correct here?
- Not longius. Why?