Page:Latin for beginners (1911).djvu/245

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nOluisse, cOnstituit cis * bellum inferre. Agris vastaUs, vicis inc€nsis, pervenit ad oppidum validissimum quod et naturS et arte munitum crat. Cingebatur muro viginti quinque pedes* alto. A lateribus duo- bus man muniebatur; a tertio latere collis, in quo oppidum erat situm, praerupt5 fastigio ad planitiem verg€bat; a quSrtS tantum" latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnare, * cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen constituit Caesar. Et castris munitis Publio negotium dedit ut res 'ad oppugnandum neces- sarias pararet. R5man5rum autem ^ppug- nati5 est haec.' Primum tufres aedificantur quibus militas in summum murum evadere possint'; vineae* fiunt quibus tecti mllites ad murum succedant ; plutei* paran- tur post quos milites tormenta*® administrent ; sunt quoque arietes qui murum et portas discutiant. His omnibus rebus comparatis, deinde "agger ab ea parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum 20 ^ eis, § 501. 15. ' pedSs, § 501. 21. * tantum, adv. only. * cum . . . esset, a clause of concession, § 501. 46. ^ ad oppugnandum, a gerund express- ing purpose. • haec, as follows. ' possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow. « vineae. These vineae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers. • plutei, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the engines of war. *° tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the cata- pult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were very cflfective. ** The agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram arits) in the lowest story. (Sec picture, p. 221.)