years in the damp building of the rising Opera-house. There he occupied three studios, one on the sixth storey, another on the tenth, and the last quite at the top, under the cupola, whence neither cold nor heat could dislodge him. His whole life was there. He slept and ate in a loge de danseuse, furnished with his student's furniture. He lived whole months without seeing any other faces than those of his models and the old housekeeper, and very occasionally a friend." In 1870 he was elected a member of the Academy of Fine Arts. M. Baudry was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1861, and was raised to the rank of Commander in March, 1875.
BAVARIA, King of. (See Louis II.)
BAXTER, The Right Hon. William Edward, M.P., was born at Dundee, in 1825, and after passing through the High School of that town, studied in the University of Edinburgh. In 1855 he succeeded the late Mr. Joseph Hume as M.P. for the Montrose burghs, which he has represented ever since. He was offered office under Government more than once, but declined, until Mr. Gladstone, in 1868, formed an administration pledged to economy, when he accepted the appointment of Secretary to the Admiralty. In March, 1871, he succeeded Mr. Stansfeld an Secretary to the Treasury, which office he resigned Aug. 6, 1873. He was sworn of the Privy Council, March 24, 1873. Mr. Baxter, who carries on business as a foreign merchant in Dundee, was a conspicuous supporter of the North during the American war, and is a well-known opponent of Church establishments. He is the author of "Impressions of Central and Southern Europe, being notes of successive journeys in Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, and the Levant," 1850; "The Tagus and the Tiber: or, Notes of Travel in Portugal, Spain, and Italy, in 1850–51," 2 vols., 1852; "America and the Americans," 1855; "Hints to Thinkers: or, Lectures for the Times," 1860; "Free Italy," a lecture delivered in 1874; and "A Winter in India," in 1882.
BAYER, Robert, an Austrian writer, generally known by his nom de guerre of Robert Byr, was born at Bregenz in the Tyrol, April 15, 1835, and received his education in the Military Academy at Wiener-Neustadt, which he left on his appointment as lieutenant in the Count Radetzky's Hussar Regiment. In 1859 he was advanced to the rank of captain, and during the Italian campaign he was placed on the general staff. After the conclusion of peace, Bayer began his literary career by the publication of his "Sketches of Military Life," ("Kantonierungsbildern," 1860). In 1862 he retired from active service and settled in his native town, where he still continues to reside. Bayer is chiefly known to fame as a novelist; his tragedy "Lady Gloster" (1872), being his only essay in dramatic composition. Military life he has described in his first work, already mentioned, in "Austrian Garrisons" ("Oesterreichische Garnisonen," 1863), and "In Quarters" ("Auf der Station," 1866). His "In the years Nine and Thirteen" ("Anno Neun and Dreizehn," 1865), contain biographical sketches of actors in the German War of Independence. To another class of works belong the following novels: "The Home of a German Count" ("Ein deutsches Grafenhaus," 1866); "With a Brazen Face" ("Mit eherner Stirn," 1868); "The Struggle for Life" ("Der Kampf ums Dasein," 1869); "Sphinx," 1870; "Nomaden," 1871; "Ruin" ("Trümmer," 1871); "Quatuor," a collection of tales, 1875; "Ghosts" ("Larven," 1876); and "A Secret Despatch" ("Eine geheime Depesche," 1880); and "Sesam," 1880.
BAYNE, Peter, M.A., LL.D. born in the manse of Fodderty