Mr. W. M. Eossetti published " Poems and Ballads : a Criticism/' and Mr. Swinburne himself, " Notes on Poems and Reviews." His later works are, "A Song of Italy/' 1867 ; " William Blake : a Critical Essay/' 1867 ; second edition, 1868 j " Siena : a Poem," 1868 ; the second part of " Notes on the Eoyal Academy Ex- hibition/' 1868, the first part of which was written by Mr. W. M. Bossetti; "Ode on tJbe Proclama- tion of the French Republic, Sept. 4, 1870 ; " " Songs before Sunrise," 1871, in which he glorifies Panthe- ism and Republicanism ; and "Both- well, a Tragedy," 1874; "Essays and Studies," 1875 ; " A Note on Charlotte Bronte," 1877 ; " Poems and Ballads : second series," 1878 ; "A Study of Shakspere," 1879; " Studies in Song/' 1881 ; " Tris- tram of Lyonesse," 1882 ; and " A Century of Roundels," 1883.
SYBEL, Heinsich von, one of the most eminent of living German historians, born at Dusseldorf, Dec. 2, 1817, studied history for four years at Berlin, under the famous Yon Ranke, took his degrees at the University of Bonn, and became Extraordinary Professor there in 1844. TKi following year he was appointed ordinary Professor at Marburg, and in 1847 elected a member of the States of Hesse, and deputy in the Diet of Erfurt. Sum- moned to Bavaria in 1856, by Maxi- milian II., he became a member of the Munich Academy of Sciences, and was sent on several scientific missions. In 1861, however, he re- turned to Bonn as Professor, and was elected by that University a member of the Chamber of Deputies at Berlin, being more recently re- turned to the Constituent Diet of the North German Confederation. He was appointed Director of the Prussian State Archives at Berlin in 1875. His principal work is a "History of the French Revolu- tion," which has been translated into English by Mr. Walter C. Perry, from the third German edi-
tion. He is also the author of "Origin of Royalty in Germany," 1845 ; " The Rising of Europe against Napoleon I.," 1860 ; and "Minor Historical Writings," 2 vols., 1863-69.
SYLVESTER, James Joseph, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., was born Sept. 3, 1814, in London. He was educated at two private schools in London, at the Royal Institution, Liverpool, and at St. John's Col- lege, Cambridge, where he gra- duated as second Wrangler. He became Professor of Natimil Philo- sophy at University College, Lon- don; Professor of Mathematics in the University of Virginia, U.S.; Professor of Mathematics, after an interval of ten years, at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich ; Pro- fessor, after an interval of five years, at the John Hopkins Unversity, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. He was for ten years reduced to make a living as an Actuary of Assurance Companies; founded the Law Re- versionary Interest Society ; and has been called to the Bar. In Dec, 1883, he was elected Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford. He has pub- lished Memoirs in the Royal Society's "Transactions," in CrelWs Journal, in the London and Edinburgh, Phi- losophical Magazine, in the Comptes Bendus of the Institute of Prance, in other English, French, and Ita- lian Joiimals, and in the American Journal of Mathematics, of which he is editor. He received the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in or about 1860, and the Copley Medal in 1880. He is Fellow of the Royal Society, Hon. Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge (1880), Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, an Hon. LL.D. of DubUn and Edinburgh, a Foreign Member of the Royal Society of Naples, a Corresponding Member of the Institute of France, of the Imperial and Royal Academies of Berlin, G5ttingen, St. Petersburg, and Member Ordinary or Corre- spondent of very many other learned bodies in Europe and the United