(1869–75) eleven articles in all—some of which attracted considerable notice. At one time he contributed to the North British Review, and he wrote occasionally in Fraser's Magazine, the Pall Mall Gazette, and the Saturday Review. He took his degree of LL.B. in the University of London; and the honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the University of Edinburgh, April 22, 1874.
BAZAINE, François Achille, a Marshal of France, was born Feb. 13, 1811. Having finished his studies in the École Polytechnique, he entered the army in 1831, served in Africa in 1832, was promoted to the grade of lieutenant in 1836, and received the Cross of the Legion of Honour on the field of battle. In 1837 he was engaged in the campaigns in Spain against the Carlists, and returned to Algeria with the rank of captain in 1839. He took part in the expeditions of Milianah, Kabylia, and Morocco; was chosen, in 1853, at the outbreak of the war in the East, to command a brigade of infantry; and during the siege of Sebastopol was honourably mentioned in the despatches of Marshals Canrobert and Pelissier. He subsequently was made a general of division, and commanded the French portion of the expedition which reduced Kinburn. In 1856 he was appointed inspector of several divisions of infantry. In 1862 he accepted a command in the French expedition to Mexico, where he greatly distinguished himself, succeeding Marshal Forey in the supreme command in 1863. He was created a Marshal of France, Sept. 5, 1864, having been previously nominated Commander of the Legion of Honour, Aug. 16, 1856, and Grand Cross, July 2, 1863. While holding the supreme command in Mexico he drove back President Juarez to the furthermost frontiers of the country (1864); made himself master of the fortified city of Oajaca, the garrison of which, consisting of 7,000 men, surrendered to him unconditionally (Feb. 8, 1865); and organised against the partisans of the Republic a system of guerilla warfare, which was carried into effect with much bravery and barbarity, under the direction of the notorious Colonel Dupin. Fatal misunderstandings arose, however, between the Emperor Maximilian and the leader of the French expedition, who was also greatly embarrassed by the obstinate resistance of the natives and the policy pursued by the United States. At length, in Sept. 1866, Marshal Bazaine, finding the maintenance of the empire impossible, commenced preparations for conducting his troops back to France. He concentrated them on Vera Cruz, and prepared for a general embarkation, while vigorously repelling to the last the attacks of the natives. On March 12, 1867, he quitted Vera Cruz with the whole of the expeditionary forces. The same year he was appointed to the command of the Third Army Corps stationed at Nancy, and on Oct. 15, 1869, he was nominated Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial Guard. During the earlier stages of the disastrous war between France and Germany, Marshal Bazaine acted a most conspicuous part. On the capitulation of Sedan he retired to the fortress of Metz, which was immediately invested by the German forces under Prince Frederick Charles. After a siege of seven weeks the place capitulated, on which memorable occasion three marshals, 50 generals, over 6,000 officers, and 173,000 men, laid down their arms. Marshal Bazaine left Metz on the day of the capitulation, on account of his unpopularity and the insecurity of his life. After staying in England for some months, he was, in August, 1871, summoned to Versailles by the Military Commission of the National Assembly. The Commissioners appointed to inquire