merchant. M. Taine was a candi- date for the seat in the French Academy that had been vacated by the death of M. Thiers, but he was uusuccessful, being defeated by M. Henri Martin the historian . Martin got eighteen votes and Taine fifteen (June 13, 1878). Very soon after- wards, however, M. Taino gained the coveted seat among the forty, being elected on Nov. 14, 1878, in the place of M. de Lomenie. His reception into the French Academy took place on Jan. 15, 1880. In addition to the works already men- tioned M. Taine has written : — " Voyage aux £aux des Pyrenees," 1855 ; " Essais de Critique et d'His- toire," 1857; "La Fontaine et ses Fables." 1860 ; " Histoire de la Lit- t^ratnre Anglaise," 4 vols., 1861, translated into English by H. Van Laun, a work which being sent in to the competition of the French Academy was rejected by that learned body on account of the materialist and atheistical opinions it contained ; " Id^alisme Anglais/' a study on Carlyle, 1861; "Posi- tivisme Anglais," a study on John Stuart Mill, 1864, translated into EngHsh by T. B. Haye, 1870 ; "Nouveaux Essais de Critique et d'Histoire," 1865; "Philosophic de r Art," 1865 ; " Philosophie de T Art en Italie," 1866; "Voyage en Ita- lie," 2 vols., 1866 ; " Notes sur Paris : ou Vie et Opinions de M. FredericThomasGraindorge," 1867 ; " L*Id^ dans TArt," lectures de- livered at the 6cole des Beaux Arts, 1867 ; " Philosophie de TArt dans les Pays-Bas," 1868 ; " Philosophie de r Art en Gr^ce," 1870 ; " L'ln- telligence," 1874 ; " Les Origines de la IVance Contemporaine," vol. i. " L'Ancien E^gime," 1875, vol. ii.
- La Revolution," 1878, vol. iii. " La
Conqu^te Jacobine," 1881 . M . Taine has contributed to the Journal des D^hctts, the Revue de V Instruction Pub- lique, and the Revue des Deux Mondes numerous and important articles, most of which have been reprinted in the volumes enumerated above.
TAMBERLIK, Hbnei, tenor singer, born at Rome in 1820, made his first appearance at Naples in 1841 , and after visiting various parts of Europe, sang at Covent Garden Opera, London. He fulfilled en- gagements in North and South America, and sang at Paris in 1858, and again in 1869. In the latter year he established a large manu- factory of firearms at Madrid^ A report of his death was circulated in Feb. 1883, but was contradicted shortly afterwards.
TASMANIA, Bishop or. (See Sandfobd, Db.)
TAUCHNITZ (Babon), Bebn- HABD Chbistian, publisher at Leipzig, celebrated for his editions of Greek and Latin Classics, Hebrew and Greek Bibles, but best known to English travellers and writers for his neat continental editions of British authors, is a member of an old family of booksellers and printers, Karl Tauchnitz, half a century ago, having made himself famous for his cheap editions of the Classics. He was born at gchleinitz near Naumburg in 1816. He foimded an independent es- tablishment in 1837, and, in 18 U, began his series of English authors. At that time there was no inter- national copyright, yet he resolved to obtain the sanction of the authors to the republication of their works, and to pay them for permission to include them in his series. This collection consists of upwards of 2100 volumes, and is continually increasing. In order to mark his appreciation of the endeavours of Tauchnitz to familiarize in Germany the chefs d*0Buvre of a literature of which he himself was so great an admirer, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, the brother of the late Prince Consort, raised him to the rank of Baron. In 1872, on the retirement of Mr. Crowe, he was appointed British Consul General for the Kingdom of Saxony, and in 1876 for the other Saxon Principalities. In 1877 he was called by the King