1869; "France and Hereditary Monarchy," 1871; "The Wit and Wisdom of the Haytians," 1877; and "Molinos, the Quietist," 1882. He had for some years up to 1872 belonged to the Republican party, but in that year he joined with the "Liberals" in opposing the re-election of President Grant; subsequently became affiliated with the Democratic party, and in 1875 was elected Secretary of State of New York. Since 1877 he has taken no active part in public life, but has contributed some papers to the periodicals. He resides at New York, with a summer residence at Highland Falls, New York.
BILLOT, Jean Baptiste, a French general, born at Chaumeil (Corrèze) Aug. 15, 1828, entered at the age of nineteen the military college of St. Cyr, which he left in 1849 as sub-lieutenant, and became attached to the staff. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in 1852; of captain in 1854; of major in 1863; of lieutenant-colonel in 1869; and of colonel in 1870. During the greater part of his brilliant military career he was stationed in Algeria, and he afterwards served in Mexico. Recalled from Africa at the time of the war against Prussia he was made a brigadier-general by the Government of the National Defence, and a few weeks later, an auxiliary general of division. Subsequently, however, he was replaced in the rank of brigadier-general by the commission for the revision of ranks. Placed at the head of the Army Corps he gained a considerable advantage over the enemy near Baune-la-Rollande, and he took part in the victory of Villers-Sexel. During the armistice General Billot was elected to the National Assembly as a representative for the department of Corrèze. He took his seat among the members of the Republican Left, and was appointed president of that group. Besides taking part in the discussion of the measures relating to Army Reform, he joined in political debates on several occasions, and he opposed with great vigour the attempts made by the Legitimists to place the Comte de Chambord on the throne of his ancestors in 1873. At the close of the year 1875 he was elected a Senator for life. In the De Freycinet Cabinet, which was constituted in Jan., 1882, General Billot held the portfolio of Minister of War. In Jan., 1883 General Billot and Admiral Jauréguiberry, the Minister of Marine, resigned their posts in consequence of differing in opinion from their colleagues as to the advisability of striking the Orleans princes off the active list of the army. The result of the double resignation was the instant collapse of the Ministry.
BINNEY, The Right Rev. Hibbert, D.D., Bishop of Nova Scotia, son of the Rev. Dr. Binney, rector of Newbury, Berks, born in Nova Scotia, in 1819, came to England, and studied at King's College, London, and afterwards at Worcester College, Oxford, of which he became scholar and fellow, and where he graduated in 1842 in classical and mathematical honours. Having taken orders, he was consecrated fourth Bishop of Nova Scotia in 1851. This was the first bishopric founded by England in her colonial dependencies, and the diocese formerly included Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward's Island, and some portion of Lower Canada. It is now confined, however, to the Province of Nova Scotia and the Island of Prince Edward.
BIRCH, Charles Bell, A.R.A., sculptor, is the only surviving son of the late Jonathan Birch, and was born at Brixton, in Surrey, Sept. 28, 1832. His father, who spent his early life in Germany, possessed considerable literary talent, was the author of several original works, and translated "Faust," and the "Niebelungen