Bugle of the Black Sea," and the following novels:—"Clara Vaughan," 1864; "Cradock Nowel: a Tale of the New Forest," 1866; "Lorna Doone: a Romance of Exmoor," 1869; "The Maid of Sker," 1872; "Alice Lorraine: a Tale of the South Downs," 1875; "Cripps the Carrier: a Woodland Tale," 1876; "Eréma; or, My Father's Sin," 1877; "Mary Anerley," 1880; and "Christowell: a Dartmoor tale," 1882. Mr. Blackmore has also published "The Fate of Franklin," a poem, 1860; "The Farm and Fruit of Old," a translation of the first and second Georgics of Virgil, 1862; and a translation of "The Georgics of Virgil," 1871.
BLACKWELL, Elizabeth, born in Bristol, England, Feb. 3, 1821. Her father, in 1832, removed to the United States, where he died in 1838, leaving his widow and nine children almost penniless. Miss Blackwell aided in their support by teaching, at the same time studying medicine at Charleston, South Carolina, and at Philadelphia. She applied for admission to a number of medical schools, but was refused by all, except those of Castleton, Vermont, and Geneva, New York, and at the latter she was matriculated in 1847, and in 1849 received the first medical degree conferred upon a woman in the United States. After her graduation she spent a year and a half in the Maternité Hospital of Paris, and that of St. Bartholomew in London, and in 1851 established herself as a physician, mainly in the treatment of women and children, at New York, where, in 1857, she founded an infirmary for women and children, having also a large private practice. She has published "The Laws of Life," 1852; "Counsel to Parents on the Moral Education of their Children," 1879; and other professional works. In 1859 she again visited England, and delivered a course of medical lectures. Her younger sister, Emily Blackwell, took her degree of M.D. in 1854, completed her studies in the hospitals of New York, Edinburgh, Paris, and London, and is connected with the New York Infirmary for Women and Children.
BLADES, William, born at Clapham, Surrey, in 1824, was educated at Clapham Grammar School, under the Rev. C. Pritchard, F.R.S., Savilian Professor at Oxford, and succeeded his father as a printer in London. He has edited "The Gouvernayle of Helthe," and other early-printed books; has contributed numerous articles to the current literature of the day upon the History of Printing and Palæotypography; but is best known by his works "The Life of William Caxton," 2 vols., 1863, and "The Enemies of Books," 1881; the former of which for the first time placed the study of early printing in England upon a sure basis.
BLAINE, James Gillespie, born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, Jan. 31, 1830. He entered the preparatory department of Washington College in his thirteenth year, and graduated in 1847 at the head of his class. He then went to Kentucky, where he was Professor of Mathematics in a military institute. Here he met his wife, who was from Maine, and at her persuasion removed to Augusta, Maine, where he has since resided. Adopting journalism as a profession, he became part owner and editor of the Kennebec Journal in 1854, and editor of the Portland Daily Advertiser in 1857. He was one of the organizers of the Republican party in Maine, and served in the State Legislature from 1858 to 1862, the last two years being Speaker. In 1862 he was elected a Representative in Congress, and was re-elected for each successive term until 1876. He was Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1869 to 1874, and was again the Republican