1862 he gained the gold medal of the University by an essay on "Fatalism among the Ancients," and afterwards he passed the examination for his degree with the highest distinction. As soon as he had graduated he left Denmark and spent several years in different countries on the Continent. He was at Stockholm in 1865; passed the winter of 1866–67 at Paris; was in Germany in 1868; and in France and Germany in 1870–71. He published "Dualismeni von nyeste Filosofi" ("The Dualism of the Philosophy of the Present Time") in 1866, with reference to the relations between science and faith—a work which exposed him to violent attacks from the orthodox party; "Æsthetic Studies," 1868; "Criticisms and Portraits," 1870; and "French Æsthetics at the Present Day," 1870. On returning from his travels he became a private tutor in the University of Copenhagen, and delivered the series of lectures which were published at Copenhagen in 4 vols., 1872–75, under the title of "Hovedströmninger i det 19 Aarhundredes Literatur" ("The Great Literary Currents of the Nineteenth Century"), and subsequently translated into German by Strodtmann. His other works are a Danish translation of John Stuart Mill's essay on the "Subjection of Women," 1869; "Sören Kjerkegaard," 1877, and "Danske Digtere" (Danish Poems), 1877. In Oct., 1877, Brandes left Denmark and settled in Berlin, where he diligently studied and made himself master of the German language, which he now writes fluently and correctly. At Berlin he composed the biographies "Esajas Tegnér" and "Benjamin d'Israeli," both published in 1878. At the close of the year 1882 he returned to Denmark, his fellow-countrymen having guaranteed him an income of 4, 000 crowns for ten years, with the single stipulation that he should deliver public lectures on literature at Copenhagen.
BRAZIL, Emperor of. (See Pedro II.)
BRECHIN, Bishop of. (See Jermyn.)
BREE, The Right Rev. Herbert, D.D., Bishop of Barbados, was born at Keswick, Cumberland, in Jan., 1828. He was educated at Bury School, and at Caius College, Cambridge (B.A. 1850; M.A. 1853); after serving the curacies of Drinkstone and Wolverstone, was collated to the rectory of Harkstead in 1858. He was curate of Long Melford from 1865 till 1870, when he obtained the rectory of Brampton, Huntingdonshire. Being appointed Bishop of Barbados, he was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait), in the chapel of Lambeth Palace, May 1, 1882.
BREEN, Henry Hegart, F.S.A., born in Kerry, Ireland, in 1805, is paternally descended from the ancient Irish chiefs of Tyrone, and represents the principal of the Septs, which, as adherents of Hugh O'Neil, were dispossessed of their lands in Ulster, in 1607, by the Government of James I., and banished to Kerry, as the remotest part of Ireland from the place of their birth. On the mother's side he is a near relative of Thomas Moore, the poet, whose father, the son of a Kerry farmer, settled in Dublin in 1775. Mr. Breen was educated at the Grammar Schools of his native county till the age of eighteen, when he was sent to the College of St. Esprit, in Paris, where, during a residence of five years, he studied philosophy, theology, and French literature. In 1829 he settled in the West Indies, and in 1833 was appointed Secretary of the Courts of Justice in the island of St. Lucia, the French language being at that time and for many years after the language of the Courts. In April, 1857, he received the appointment of Administrator of the Government of