cation Polygonale," 2 vols., 1869, with atlas; "La Fortification Improvisée," 1870, translated into English by C. A. Empson, under the title of "Hasty Entrenchments," 1872; "La Fortification à Fossés secs," 2 vols., 1872, with atlas; and "Ce que vaut la Garde Civique. Étude sur la situation militaire de la Belgique," 1872. He started in 1850 the Journal de I'Armée Belge.
BRIDGE, John Frederick, was born Dec. 5, 1844, at Oldbury, Worcestershire, and educated at Rochester Cathedral School, under John Hopkins, and afterwards became a pupil of Sir John Goss. He was appointed Organist of Holy Trinity Church, Windsor, in 1865; of Manchester Cathedral in 1869; Professor of Harmony at Owens College, Manchester, in 1871; Permanent Deputy Organist of Westminster Abbey in 1875; and succeeded to the full offices of Master of the Choristers and Organist in 1882. Dr. Bridge has composed the oratorio "Mount Moriah;" a cantata "Boadicea;" church music and part songs. He is the author of theoretical works on Counterpoint, Double Counterpoint, and Canon.
BRIDGMAN, Frederic A., figure painter, born at Tuskegee, Alabama, Nov., 1847. His father died when he was three years old, and at the age of ten his mother took him to the Northern States, where he resided for a few years in Massachusetts. He then entered the American Bank Note Company (New York) to learn engraving, residing at Brooklyn, where he studied painting in evening art-schools. Although he made rapid progress as an engraver, he preferred to adopt painting as his art, and so resigned his position in the Bank Note Company; and in 1866, assisted by friends, went to Paris, where he studied under Gérôme in the École des Beaux-Arts for three years. In 1869, and again in 1870, he spent some time in Brittany. In 1871 he passed six months in London, and the next two years in the Pyrenees, on the Spanish border. The winter of 1872–73 was passed in Algiers, and that of 1873–74 in Egypt, Nubia, and on the Nile. In 1875 he received a medal in the Paris Salon, and also one at the International Exhibition of 1878. Soon after he was made a member of the Legion of Honour. He still resides at Paris. Among his pictures are "Up Early," "Girls in the Way," "Apollo bearing off Cyrene," "Interior of a Harem," "The Funeral of the Mummy," "Illusions of High Life," "Bringing in the Corn," "The American Circus in Paris," "In the Pyrenees," "The Nubian Story-Teller," "Donkey-Boy of Cairo," "Kybelian Woman," and "Planting Rape in Normandy."
BRIGHT, Sir Charles Tilston, F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., civil engineer, the son of Brailsford Bright, Esq., born in 1832, commenced the active business of his profession in 1850, and in 1853, as engineer to the English and Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company, was immediately concerned in the union of Great Britain with Ireland by submarine telegraph. In 1856 he was one of four original projectors of a line of telegraph between the west coast of Ireland and America, which work, as engineer to the Atlantic Telegraph Company, he accomplished in Aug., 1858, when he received the honour of knighthood from the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Several messages were transmitted between London and New York and other places; amongst them congratulatory addresses between Her Majesty and the President of the United States, and orders countermanding the despatch of two regiments from Canada to India, by which the country saved upwards of £50, 000. The line, however, ceased to work a few weeks afterwards. Sir C. Bright was returned for Greenwich at the general election of 1865, and continued to