trunin^, indudiiii? the nftv&l and mDHtary drill, in good district pauper schools cna. the half-time Bjttem, the results of voluntary eombinationfl of educational means, and the division of educational labour, on the principles of the district schoc^, and the great aaring of time and expense and improTement in mental and bodily power obtainable thereby. In the TraasaetionB of the British Asso- dc^ion he published a paper read at Oxford on. the physiological as well as the psychological limits to mental labour.
CHArLLU, Paul B. Du. (See Du Chaillu.)
CHALLEMED-LACOUK, Paul Arm AND,, a French Senator, born at ATranchea (Manche), May 19, 1827, studied at Paris in the lyceum of Saint Louis, entered the Normal School in 1846, and was first in the competition for graduation in philo- sophy in 1840. He was sent as Pro- fessor of Philosophy to the lyceums of Pau and Limoges. Arrested and imprisoned after the coup d*4tat, and then banished from France, he with- drew to Belgium, where he delivered lectures witii success, and next to Switaserland, where he was appointed Professor of French Literature in the " Polytechnicon " of Zurich. After the amnesty he returned to his natiTe country (1859), and con- tributed articles on literature, art, and philosf^hy to the Temps, the Rewu Ufativnale, the Revue des Cours Bcieidifique* et lUt4raires, the Revue Modems, of which he became manager, and the Revue dee Deux Mimdee. In 1868 he established, in conjunction with Messieurs Brisson, AUain-Targ^, and Oambetta, the Bevue Politique, of which he under- took the management, and conse- quently underwent a conviction for publishing the lists of subscriptions for a monument to the representa- tive Bandin. Appointed Prefect of the Bh6ne after the 4th of Sept., 1870, he was called upon to admi- niflter the affairs of the turbulent
city of Lyons in circumstances of extreme difficulty. It is true that he did not succeed in preventing excesses there, but it is urged on his behalf that his authority was coimterbalanced and held in check by the Committee of Public Safety. He resigned this office Feb. 5, 1871, and on Jan. 7, 1872, he was elected Deputy in the Radical interest for the Boaches-du-Bh6ne. In the Chamber he distinguished himself by his eloquence and his readiness and calmness in debate. On Jan. 30, 1876, he was elected a Senator by the department of the Bouches- du-£h6ne. M. Challemel-Lacour was mixed up at about the same period in two important law-suits. One of these was brought by the Brothers of Christian Doctrine of the commune of Caluire, in the De- partment of the Rhone, whose es- tablishment had been occupied by troops diuing the war. After pro- longed argiunents, and notwith- ' standing a ministerial decree of I April 10, 1878, which declared that I the Prefect had acted in the name I of the State, the Court of Cassation ! sent back the case to the Court of I Dijon, which, on Jan. 30, 1879, con- , demned M. Challemel-Lacour and I his associates in 97,243 francs I damages. The second action was brought by M. Challemel-Lacour ' against La France Nouvelle, a Le- gitimist journal, which had charged him with cheating at play in a club, and the defendants were condemned, on Jan. 6, 1879, to pay a fine of 2000 francs and 10,000 fiancs costs. A few days afterwards (Jan. 14) he was sent to Berne as ambassador to the Swiss Confederation. On June 11, 1880, he was nominated ambas- sador to the Court of St. James's, in succession to M. Leon Say. On his appointment being made known in this country, Mr. O'Donnell asked in the House of Commons whether he was the same person as the Citi- zen Challemel-Lacour who, as one of the Prefects of the Provisional Government of Sept. 4, 1870, ordered