CLARKE, ]Cajos-Obi7Sxl^li. Btb, AirnBiw, K.C.M.O., C.B., eon of CoIoDel Andrew Clarke, of Selmont;, CO. Donegal, was born at Sou-tliaea, Harapehire, in 1824, and received his education at the Royal MHitary Academy, WoolwicH. He entered the Boyal Bn^ineers aa second Lieat^mnt in 1844 ; l>ecaiixe Cap- tain in 1854 ; Liientenajit-Colonel in 1867 ; and Ck»lonel in 1877- He acted as aide-de-camp to Sir W. Denison, the Governor of Van Dieman's Ltand, and served in !New Zealand during the years 1847-48, and became a nieixLl>er of the Ijegis- lative Conncil there in 1851. In 1853 he was appointed Sirrveyor- Oeneral of Victoria. He was elected to the Victorian Assenably for Melbonme, nnder the t^^^ oonsti- tntion, and became ^Ainister for Public Lands, bnt lie resigned office in 1857, and returned to this oomitrj in the following year. He oonunanded the Royal Rngineers of the Eastern and Midland districts of England till 1863, wben he went on special service to the West Coast of Africa respecting the Ashantee difficmlties. On ^ his re- turn be was appointed in Aug. 1864, Director of the TVorks of the Navy, which ofBce be held till June, 1873. From tbe latter date tin Feb. 1875, be was Governor of the Straits Settlement, and he was next appointed Director of Public Works in India. He was Comman- dant of tbe School of Military Engineering at Chatham from 1881 to 1882, wben be was appointed In- spector-General of Fortifications. In Nov. 1882, he was dispatched to Cairo, charged with the duty of
in 1815, was engaged in the Spanish and Portuguese wars of succession, and afterwards held a diplomatic appointment. In 1836 he planned and surveyed the Morecambe Bay Embankment and other improve- ments, and the railways for the development of Barrow. In 1849 he was employed to report on the telegraph system for India, and in 1857 he exerted himself for the ex- tension of hill settlements in India, and for the Through Railway to India. He was Honorary Agent for Darjeeling, and a Councillor of the Ottoman Government. His early writings from 1837 include numerous books, memoirs and pamphlets on philosophical sub- jects, political economy, banking, statistics, railways, foreign loauB, and public works. Mr. Clarke is also the author of " Theory of Rail- way Investment," 1846 ; *' Military Life of Wellington," 1849 ; " En- glish Grammar and Dictionary," 1863; and "Comparative Philo- logy," 1858. In 1848 he published, under the title of " Economical Physics," the cycle now known as the sunspot period. He was also one of the discoverers of the law of unconscious thought. On the Con- tinent and in the United States he is best known as a philologist. After a long application to the study of languages, of late years he has devoted himself as an Ori- entalist to the Iberian and Acca- dian families of languages, and to pre-historic and philological re- searches. A special branch has been the determination of the lan- guages of the American and Aus- tralian continente, and their rela- tion to the comparative philology and mythology of Africa and In- dia. His contributions in English, French, Italian, Spanish, and Por- tuguese, include " Memoirs on the identification of the Yarini of Taci- tus and other pointe of Anglo-Saxon History," 1848, 1866, 1868; "The Ude of the Caucasus, and its rela- tions to Egyptian and Coptic,"