of his latest works is " De Eerels van Vlanderen/* an historical ro- manoe, 1871. The following tales by M. Conscience have been trans- lated into English:— "The Pro- gress of a Painter/' 1862; "The Good Mother/' Dublin, 1852 j " The Lion of Flanders, or the Battle of the Golden Spurs/' 1855; "The Curse of the Village/' and " The Happiness of being Bich," Lond., 1856 ; " The Miser/' Lond., 1855 ; "Tales of Old Flanders, Count Hugo of Craenhove and Wooden Clara," 1865 ; " Veva, or the War of the Peasants ; " and " The Con- script," Baltimore, 1856 ; " The Demon of Gold," Lond., 1857; •* The Poor Gentleman," Baltimore, 1867 ; " Eicketicketack, and Wooden Clara," Baltimore, 1867 ; " The Con- script and Blind Eosa," 1867 ; " The Village Innkeeper," 1867.
CONSTANT, Benjamin, a French painter, born at Ps^s, June 10, 1846, studied in the Ecole des Beaux- Axts, and then entered the atelier of M. Cabanel. The first picture he sent to the salon was " Hamlet et le Eoi," 1869 ; and he has since exhibited "Trop tard," 1870; "Samson et Dalila, 1872; "Femmes du Riff (Maroc)/' and " Bouchers maures k Tanger," 1873 ; "Coin de Rue" and "Carrefour h Tanger," 1874 ; " Prisonniers Maro- cains," "Femmes de Harem k Maroc," and " Le Dr. Gu^neau de Massy," 1876; "Mohamed II., le 29 Mai 1453," a picture of colossal dimensions, afterwards sent to the Exposition Uniyerselle of 1878; " M. Emmanuel Arago," 1876 ; " La Soif ," " Le Harem,'^and " Hamlet au Cimitifere/' 1878 ; " Le Soir sur les Terrasses au Maroc," and " Fa- vorite de I'Emir," 1879 ; " Le dernier Rebelle," 1880. M. Constant, who was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1878, married one of the daughters of M. Emmanuel Arago.
CONSTANTINE, NIC0L3e- WITCH, the second son and fourth child of the late emperor Nicholas, Grand Duke of Russia, titular and
Grand Admiral of the Imperial fleet, was born Sept. 21 (or, accord- ing to the old style which Russia retains, Sept. 9), 1827. He was educated with great care for the naval service, and had for his tutor Admiral Ltttke, the circumnaviga- tor of the globe, under whose orders the young prince subsequently served, and acquired the rank oi " post-captain in the Russian navy," as he thus subscribed himself at the model-room of the Admiralty at Somerset House, during his visit to England in 1847. In lus charac- ter of Admiral he had ventured to arrest his elder brother, the present emperor of Russia, who was on board his ship, for which he was himself placed under arrest for a considerable time by his father. The Gb^md Duke Constantino mar- ried, Aug. 30, 1848, the Princess Alexandra, daughter of Joseph, duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by whom he has issue. In addition to being Grand Admiral of Russia, the Grand Duke Constantino is Commandant of the 4th brigade of Infantry of the Guard, Colonel of the regiment of Hussars of the late Grand Duke Michael Paoilowitch, a member of the Council of Military Schools, and President of the Grand Council of the Empire. He allied himself to the Muscovite national party, whose fanaticism helped to bring about the war with England and France. At the death of the em- peror Nicholas, it was feared that the Grand Duke Constantino might become the chief of the opposition represented by the old Muscovite -peatj against the moderate party, of which the new czar, Alexan- der U., had been considered the centre. The late emperor, foresee- ing the probability of commotion, had, however, caused the Ghrand Duke Constantino to take in his presence an oath of fidelity and obedience to the heir of the throne ; and when Nicholas saw that his end was approaching, he called the two princes to his bedside, and before