sect of Armenians who, whilst retaining their own ancient rites and ceremonies, are in communion with the Roman Catholic church. After a complete university course at Berlin, where he gained more than one great prize medal by his writings and dissertations, he com- menced his official career as pro- fessor of modern langoages in the Ottoman Military College of Con- stantinople. He afterwards entered the diplomatic service as Secretary to the Ottoman Embassy at Berlin, then at Vienna, and subsequently at Paris, whence he returned to Berlin as Charg^ d' Affaires, which post he held at various times during a period of nine years. In 1854 he accompanied A'ali Pasha, as chief secretary, to the Conference of Vienna. In 1855 he was Imperial Ottoman delegate on the commis- sion for arrangfing the navigation of the Danube, ana in 1858 went as chief secretary with Fuad Pasha to the Conference of Paris for the definite organization of Wallachia and Moldavia. In the following year Davoud Effendi was appointed Director-General of telegraphs, and under his auspices many of the great lines of telegraphic communi- cation now comjueted throughout the Turkish empire were com- menced. In 1861, after the civil war in Mount Lebanon between the Druses and Maronites, he was selected by the Porte and the five Powers to fill the very difficult post of Governor-General of the Leba- non, and during his seven years* rule, proved himself worthy of the trust reposed in him. On that occasion he was created a Muchir or Pasha of the highest grade, being the first Christian raised to the rank of Muchir under the Sublime Porte. In 1868 he resigned the Governor-Generalship of Mount Lebanon, and returned to Constan- tinople, where he was appointed Minister of Public Works, a posi- tion, however, which iU-healtiii obliged him to vacate on June 19,
1871. Davoud Pasha speaks Tur- kish, Armenian, Greek, Italian, German, English, and French, and in the last of these languages has published a " History of the Seven Years' War."
DAWES, William, architect, and author of several humorous works under the pseudonym of "Elijer Goff,*' was born at Glou- cester, March 14, 1840, and received his education at Siiffolk House, Gloucester, of which establishment Mr. Edward Green was then the principal. He was articled in the architectural profession in London in 1858, and subsequently practised in London, Denbigh, Birmingham, and Manchester offices until he be- came partner with Mr. W. H. Hay- ley, architect, of Manchester, in 1863, only five years from the com- mencement of his professional career. Mr. Hayley retired from the firm in 1867. Mr. Dawes' first building, won in competition, was a small church school in Oldham. His first book, " Elijer GofTs Trubbles, Travels, and other Amoozements," appeared in 1872, and ran through three editions. His second work, "Elijer Goff's Kristmus Book," followed in the winter of that year. His third book, " Elijer Goff's Kronikle of a King," was not published until 1878, owing to a long and severe pressure of professional work in the years 1873 to 1878, during which period Mr. Dawes' time was fully oc- cupied with the Victoria Buil^gs and other important architectural works at Manchester. His more recent publications are " A Great Fite," 1881, and " Bore and Pigskin Papers, 1883. Mr. Dawes was a very frequent contributor to the Building Ifews and Builders* Journal' from 1860 to 1865. About 1873 he was appointed architect for the Manchester Cathedral restorations, which jKwition he still occupies.
DAWKINS, William Botd, M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.S.A., geo- logist and osteologist, was bom