mal School in 1830^ was appointed to the class of history at the College of Bheims in 1833, and in the same year to a. similar position in the College of Henrv IV. at Paris, afterwards called the CoU^e Napo- l^n. About this time he published anonymously various elementary historical works. In 1853 he took the degree of Doctor " ha lettres/' afterwards became Inspector of the Academy of Paris, Master of the Conferences at the £cole Normale, and Professor of History at the £cole Polytechnique, and by decree, June 23, 1863, was appointed Minis- ter of Public Instruction. The changes and reforms which he in- troduced in his department, and his numerous programmes and cir- culars, gave rise to much discussion. Of course, the systematic opponents of the Government saw nothing good in what he did, and he was often severely criticised by such of them as belonged to his own pro- fession. By the Catholic party, too, he was sharply attacked, and his "Synopsis of Contemporary History," for the use of the Lyceum, in wluch work several material points relating to the political events of our day were discussed, exposed him to severe censure. On resigning the office of Minister of Public Instruction in July, 1869, he was appointed a Senator^ with a dotation of 30,000 francs. He sat in the Senate until the revolution of Sept. 4, 1870. His principal works are : Olographic Politique de la Bepublique Bomaine et de I'Empire,^' 1838 ; •' G^praphie Historique du Moyen Age, 1839 ;
- ' Oeographie de la France," 1840 ;
" Atlas de Oeographie Historique," 1841 ; " Histoire des Bomains," 1840-4; " Histoire Romaine," 1848 ; " Histoire de Prance," 1852 ; " His- toire Orecque," 1851 ; " Histoire de I la Gr^ce Ancienne," 1852 — a work | " crowned " by the French Academy; " Histoire Modeme," 1863 ; " His- , toire Populaire de la Prance," 1863 j i
- ' Histoire Populaire Contempo- |
raine," 1864 ; ** Introduction Gen^ rale k I'Histoire de France," 1865 and a second " Histoire des Bomain depuis les temps les plus reculd jusqu'k la fin du r^ne des Anto nins," 5 vols., 1870-76. M. Duru; was decorated with the Cross of thi Legion of Honour in 1845; pro moted to the grade of Officer o that order, Aug. 12, 1863 ; to tha of Commander, Aug. 13, 1864 ; an< to that of Grand Officer, Aug. 4 1867. He has been an Officer o the Turkish Order of the Medjidi since 1857.
DUVAL, Edgar Baoul, a Frend politician, born at Laon, April S 1832. His father was President o the Court of Bordeaux, and he him self entered the legal order at ai early age. Under the Empire h- was connected with the officia lawyers at Nantes; was Advocate General at Angers, Bordeaux, an< Bouen ; and was inscribed at th( bar in the latter city. He was bu little known in the political worl< when he was elected Deputy froB the Seine Inf^rieure, July 2, 1871 by 58,387 votes, but he had n* sooner entered the Assembly thai he took position as one of th( leaders of the Bight. He first be came noted on account of his fre guent and vigorous attacks on M Thiers. After the fall of the Thier Ministry he turned round and at tacked his old ally the Due d< Broglie. At the commencement o 1875 he joined the Bonapartists an< in several remarkable si>eechei praised the much-vilified Seconc Empire, and prophesied its restora tion. Thus he made himself th< chief of the " Young Imperialist ' party. In 1876 he was elected foi Louviers, but at the elections oj Oct. 14, 1877^ he failed to secun his re-election. In 1876 he estab- lished at Paris La Nation, a nein organ of the Bonapartist parfy.
DUVEBNAY, Yolande-Mawk Louise, dancer, daughter of M. Jean-Louis Duvemay, was born in France^ about 1815^ and made hei