" The Belations between Physical Geography and History/' at Bos- ton, wMch were translated by Pro- fessor Felton, and published under the title of " The Earth and Man/' 1849. He was next employed by the Massachusetts Board of Educa- tion to instruct the teachers in normal schools and teachers' insti- tutes in the best methods of teach- ing geography; and subsequently by the Smithsonian Institution to investigate the physical structure and elevation of the Alleghany system of mountains. Since 1855 he has been Professor of Physical Geography in the College of New Jersey, at Princeton. Besides ^de- livering courses of scientific lec- tures, and contributing to periodi- cals, he has published " Directions for Meteorological Observations," 1860 ; " Meteorological Tables," 1852 ; and a series of geographical works, including "Primary Geo-
Sraphy " (1866) ; "Common School eography" (1866); "Introduc- tion to the Study of Geography" (1866) J "Intermediate Geography" (1870) ; " Physical Geography," with a set of large w^ maps (1872) ; and " Grammar School Geography" (1874). With Presi- dent Barnard of Columbia College, New York, he has edited Johnson's "Universal Cyclopaedia" (1874-77). He has ascertained the precise altitude of ~a number of the moun- tains in America, and in 1879 issued a " Mapof the CatskiU Mountains." GZOWSKI, LiBUT.-CoL. Casimib Stanislaus, one of Her Majesty's Aides-de-Camp in Canada, was born at St. Petersburg, in March, 1813, and is the son of Count Gzowski, a Polish noble and officer of the Im- perial Guard. In 1830, Col. Gzowski graduated as an engineer from the military college of Kre- menetz, in the province of Vol- hynia, and entered the Russian army. He was concerned in the Polish insurrections of 1830-82, and eadled to the United States in the Utter year. There his linguistic
accomplishments for a time served him in good stead, but he speedily resumed his profession, and in 1880 went to Upper Canada, where he connected himself with the De- partment of Public Works for the Province, and has been interested in many public enterprises of a professional character for the past nfty years. In all the important en«dneering projects of CaiuMla, in rauway oonstmction, in river and ndlway-bridge building, M. Gzowski has been identified; and many public and private enter- prises have had the benefit of his experience and skill. Col. Gxowski has for many years taken an active part in furthering the aims of the Dominion Bifle Association; and his courtly hospitality at Wimble- don, on the occasion of the visit of the Canadian team, has been freely and repeatedly exemplified. In May, 18^9, he was appointed Aide- de-Camp to the Queen.
HAAG, Cabl, E.W.S., a painter, bom at Erlangen in Bavaria in 1820, began his artistic education at the Academy of Nuremberg in 1837, afterwards continuing it at Munich and Bome. In 1847 he settled in this country, and his ad- miration for the perfection of Eng- lish water-colour painting induced him to abandon oil, and adopt water-colour in preference. In 1860 he was elected a member of the Eoyal Society of Painters in Water- Colours. He has been a constant contributor to the Exhibitions of that Society, the subjects of his earlier pictures being chiefly from the Tyrol, Dalmatia, and Monte- negro. In 1853 he was introduced at the Court of Queen Victoria by the late Prince of Leiningen, and Her Majesty gave him many com- missions for sketches of life in the Highlands of Scotland, and also for important pictures, such as "The