aizing and establishing ems for London on a self- g basis. In 1879 Mr. Hart
a similar meeting at his ,h the view of establishing )r centres for cheap musi* tainments for the people, ihe sale of intoxicants. A aociation was formed for pose, which has formed )ria theatre into a coffee id music-hall. As Chair-
the Parliamentary Bills ie of the British Medical on Mr. Hart has taken •omoting the better organi-
the medical departments irmy and navy, and in the Public Health Acts, bly presided at a conference ation. Among sanitary in- 3ns Mr. Hart 1^ especially ted the various epidemics ve been due to the pollution
and has established the
of safeguarding the milk ' towns, at the same time an organization which has ^ssf ul and has been largely in various great cities, and B formed the basis of recent
and regulations of the mcil, and of various health es.
, James McDouqal, land- inter, born at Kilmarnock, , in 1828. When a child vith his family to America d at Albany, New York, tie went to Diisseldorf and [>ainting for about a year. Qed to Albany in 1852, and emoved to New York city, has since resided. He was Academician in 1859. His are admired for their har-
colour and quiet peace- )f tone. The best known
- hem are
- — ** Woods in
" "Moonrise in the Adi- ,'* " Peaceful Homes,"
- out of the Shade, "On
ch," " Among Friends," jning Weather," "Indian " and "A Misty Morning."
HART, Sib Robebt, K.C.M.G., bom at Portadown, in the north of Ireland, in 1835, was educated at the Wesleyan Schools at Taun- ton and Stephen's Green, Dublin, and at the Queen's College, Bel- fast, from which he graduated in 1853. He was appointed a student- interpreter in the British Consular service in China in 1854, and was Secretary to the Allied Commission for the government of Canton in 1858. He joined the Chinese Cus- toms service as deputy-commissioner in 1859, was appointed Inspector- General of Customs in 1863, and has held that post ever since. The Customs system which was adopted in all the Chinese treaty ports under the Treaty of 1858, and has prevailed ever since with marked success, allows foreigners to assist China, as Chinese officials, in the administration of her Customs. The Inspector - General is, under the Tsung-li-Yamen, or Chinese Foreign Office, the head of the maritime Customs of China. In the de]>art- ment of Coast Lights, which is under his charge, there are now over 70 lights of superior order, including several important lighthouses and four lightships, whereas in 1862 there were only two or three insig- nificant lights and one inferior light vessel. Sir Robert Hart has been the mainspring of this large administration for twenty-one years past. Standing in relation to the Chinese Government as their ser- vant, though a foreigner, and in relation to the foreigners as one of themselves, though a Chinese official, he has had no light burden to bear. He was Pl^sident of the Chinese Commission for the Inter- national Exhibitions at Vienna in 1873, at Philadelphia in 1876, and at Paris in 1878. He was made M.A. of the Queen's University, honoris causA, in 1875; he is a Chevalier of the Order of Vasa in Sweden, Commander of the Order of Leopold in Belgium, Commander of the Legion of Honour in France,