various mairies, in addition to numerous hospitals^ asylums (espe- cially the Hdtel Dieu), and many other public works. After several loans had been contracted for the purpose of carrying out these im- provements the municipality of Paris, acting under the powers conferred upon them by special laws, raised a further sum of 250,000,000 francs in 1865, and 260,000,000 francs more in 1869. Meanwhile the financial adminis- tration of M. Haussmann had given rise to the most animated discus- sions in the Corps L^gislatif and in the columns of the press, it being alleged that the Prefect had raised, by means of bonds, hundreds of millions of francs over and above the large amount he was legally authorised to expend in the con- struction of public works. Even- tually M. Haussmann requested the Emperor to place the budget of the city under the control of the Corps L^slatif, and accord- ingly tiie examination of his accounts became the principal business of the session that com- menced early in 1869, the result being that authority was given for a new loan of 260,000,000 francs, which was eagerly subscribed by the public. On the formation of a parliamentary cabinet by M. ifcmile Ollivier, he was asked to tender his resignation of the office of Pre- fect of the Seine, and on his refusal to do so he was relieved of his duties " by an imperial decree, dated Jan. 5, 1870. M. Haussmann was promoted to the rank of Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, June 17, 1866, and Grand Cross, Sept. 8, 1862. In Aug., 1857, he was created a Senator, and, in 1867, elected a member of the Academy of Fine Arts. He was likewise a member of the Imperial Council of Public Instruction. After the fall of the Empire Baron Haussmann prudently quitted France for a time. On his return he was ap- pointed (Sept. 3, 1871) director of
the Credit Mobilier, and in this capacity he did much to restore the influence and improve the situation of that financial institution. At the election of Oct., 1877, he was returned to the Chamber of Depu- ties by the arrondissement of Ajaccio in Corsica, his candidature having received the official appro- bation of the Government. He polled 8,066 votes against 4,421 given for his opponent. Prince Napoleon. In the Chamber he occasionally took part in the dis- cussion of financial project? and questions relating to public works, and had several times, in reference to this latter class of subjects, to defend his administration. In June, 1879, the municipal coimcil of Paris, after a debate on the names of streets, included the Boulevard Haussmann among the public thoroughfares which were to have their names changed; but on the recommendation of the new Prefect of the Seine (M. F. Herold) the name of his predecessor was retained
HAUSSONVILLE (Comtb d'), Joseph Othenin Bebnabd db Cl^bon, a French politician and Member of the Academy, born at Paris, May 27, 1809, is the son of a peer of France, who died in 1846. Entering the diplomatic service, he acted as Secretary of Embassy at Brussels, Turin, and Naples. Sub- sequently he took an active part in the proceedings of the French Chamber, to which he was returned in 1842, and again in 1846, as Deputy for Provins. After the revolution of February he retired from public life. On April 29, 1869, he was elected to the stall in the Academy, vacant by the death of M. Viennet. The Comte d'Haussonville is the author of " Histoire de la Politique Ext^rieture du Gouvemement Fran- 9ais de 1830 i^ 1848," 2 vols., 1860 ; "Histoire de la B^union de la Lorraine ^ la France," 4 vols., 1854-59, 2nd edit. 1860 ; "L'^glise Bomaine et le Premier Empire,"