was tinsuccessful^ and he has never since then endeavoured to enter Parliament. He was President of the Institution of Civil Eng^eers in 1862-63. In 1870 he proposed the famous scheme for a submarine tunnel between Calais and Dover, the borings for which have been recently commenced. In 1873 he received the honour of knighthood. He was President of the British Association at the Bristol Meeting in 1875. The following are some of Sir John HawkshaVs great engi- neering works : — the Riga and Duna- berg and the Dimaberg and Witepsk Railways in Russia; the Penarth Harbour and Dock in Cardiff Roads, the Londonderry Bridge in Ireland, the Charing Cross and Cannon Street line, with the two massive Bridges over the Thames, the East London Railway, the Government Railways in Mauritius, the Albert Dock at Hull, the South Dock of the East and West India Dock Company, the foundation of the new forts at Spithead, and the Great Ship Canal from Amsterdam to the North Sea. Sir John has written pamphlets on mining and engineering subjects ; papers read before the Geological Societies of London and Manchester; and "Re- miniscences of South America ; from Two-and-a-half Years' Resi- dence in Venezuela " (1838).
HAWLEY, Joseph Roswell, journalist and politician, was born in Stewartsville, Richmond County, North Carolina, October 31, 1826. A.B. (Hamilton CoU.), iai7. His parents were originally from Con- necticut, and when he was eleven years old they returned to that state, where he studied law and began to practice in Hartford (1850), but abandoned law in 1857 for journal- ism, connecting himself with the Evening Press, a newly established Republican paper. When the civil war broke out he was the first citi- zen of his State to volunteer, and was appointed Lieutenant and after- wards Captain in the 1st Conn.
Inf., serving with his company at the battle of Bull Run. In Sep- tember, 1861, he was made Lieut.- Colonel of the 7th Conn. Inf., com- manding the regiment aft^ the promotion of Col. Terry. He re- ceived his commission as Brigadier- General in 1864, and was placed in command of the 2nd Brigade of Gen. Terry's Division of we lOtii Corps, becoming afterwards the Chief of Staff of Gen. Terry in Yirgfinia ; and was brevetted Miaijor- General in Septemb^*, 1865. He was Governor of C<mnecticut in 1866-7; President of the Repub- lican National Convention at Chi- cago in 1868, when Qten, Grant was nominated for the Presidency ; was Member of Congress in 1873-7, and in 1879-81 ; President of the Cen- tennial Commission in 1876 ; and since 1881 has been U.S. Senator from Connecticut. He is the owner and editor of the Hartford Courant with which the Press was consoli- dated in 1867.
HAWTHORNE, Julian, son of the eminent novelist, Nathaniel Hawthorne, born at Boston, Massa- chusetts, June 22, 18^. He was prepared for college at Conoord, Massachusetts, and entered Harvard in 1863, where he remained until his father's death in May> 18^. He subsequently returned to Cam- bridge, and remained there unUl his class graduated in 1867, but he took no degree. He then entered the Scientific School to study civil engineering, but left it at the end of a year to go to Germany, in Oct., 1868. He spent two years at a real- schule in Dresden, still studying engineering. In the summer of 1870 he visited the United States, intending to resume his studies at Dresden in the autumn, but the Franco-German war interfered with his plans, and he joined the staff of hydrographic engmeers in the New York Do<^ Department under G«i. McClellan, to which he remained attached until the summer of 1872. During 1871 he contributed a nnxn-