quently become President. In order to secure the election of Mr. Hayes, all of these thirteen votes must be counted for him. Singu- larly enough, neither the Constitu- tion nor any existing law pro- vided for such an emergency, and as the Republicans had a majority in the Senate, and the Democrats in the House, it was certain that the two branches of Congress would not agree upon any bill which would give the counting of the disputed votes to their opponents. In this emergency, a bill was passed creat- ing a special Electoral Commission of fifteen for counting the votes. It was to consist of five Senators, five Eepresentatives, and five Judges of the Supreme Court. This commission, by a majority of one, decided that the disputed votes should all be counted for Mr. Hayes, giving him a majority of one vote, and he was declared duly elected. Mr. Hayes' administration was a conservative one, and was noted more for its exceptional purity than for any especial policy. By the withdrawal of all national troops from the Southern States he restored to them in its full entity the right of local self-government, and thus removed, probably permanently, the " Southern question " from general politics. He endeavoured to prevent the premonetization of silver, but his veto was overridden by the constitutional two-thirds majority in both Houses of Con- gress. The Republican Senators, led by Mr. Conkling, vigorously opposed his efforts at a reform of the civil service, so that he was able to secure but little legislation upon the subject, the bill prohibiting political assessment on office- holders being the only measure in that direction passed. He was able, however, to set an example in favour of the reform by checking removals except for cause, and by instituting in the Interior Depart- ment at Washington, and in the Post Office and Custom House at
New York, competitive examina- tions for appointment. The House of Representatives, which was Democratic throughout his term, attempted to secure his assent to the repeal of certain measures by attaching them to appropriation bills, but he was firm in his refusal to sign them, and the House was finally obliged to give way, public sentiment showing itself largely on the side of the President. On March 4, 1881, he was succeeded in the Presidency by Mr. Garfield, and has since resided at his home in Fremont, Ohio.
HAYMAN, The Rev. Hbnbt, D.D., was born in 1823, and entered Merchant Taylors' School in 1832, whence, after gaining the chief prizes in Greek verse and Latin prose, he proceeded as scholar to St. John's College, Oxford, in 1841. He became a fellow of his college in 1844, and in the following year was placed in the second class both in classics and in mathematics. He then came to London, and was successively curate at St. Luke's, Old Street, and at St. James's, Piccadilly, when the present Bishop of London, Dr. Jackson, was rector, and in 1853-5 one of the assistant- masters at the Charterhouse. In 1854 he was appointed assistant preacher at the Temple Church, where, on the close of the Crimean War, he published a sermon on " Peace, God's gift, and how to use it ; " and in the following year head master of St. Olave's Grammar School, Southwark. Subsequently he became head master of Chelten- ham Grammar School, and in 1868 of St. Andrew's College, Bradfield. When Dr. Temple was promoted to the see of Exeter, Dr. Hayman was elected his successor as head master of Rugby School, Nov. 20, 1860. Though a most accomplished scholar, the Governing Body of the school resolved to remove him from the head mastership, the dismissal to take effect from April 7, 1874. The learned Judge who presided at the