an early age, to work for his living in the fields. He married the daughter of a mechanic, and at her suggestion he added to his slender stock of book learning. He used often to sit up late at night reading books, whilst smoking his pipe by the kitchen fire. In this way he contrived to acquire some knowledge of logic, mensuration, and surveying. He likewise perused a large number of religious works, and for some years he occupied a good deal of his spare time in preaching among the Primitive Methodists. When the movement arose among the agricultural labourers, he became its recognised leader. In 1872 he founded the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, of which he became president. He went through the principal agricultural districts of England, addressing crowded meetings of the labouring classes, and afterwards he visited Canada to inquire into the questions of labour and emigration. A more detailed account of Joseph Arch's career will be found in "The English Peasantry," by Mr. Francis George Heath, 1874.
ARCHER, James, was born in Edinburgh, June 10, 1824, and educated at the High School in that city. He was appointed an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1850, and a full Academician in 1858. Mr. Archer, who left Scotland for London in 1862, first exhibited in the Royal Academy a cartoon of a design of the Last Supper, followed by an oil picture of the same the year after. He made a series of pictures from the "Morte d'Arthur," of which one was exhibited in the Royal Academy—"The Mystic Sword Excalibur." He painted a series of pictures of children in costume, exhibited in the Royal Academy, of which "Maggie, you're Cheating" is the chief. He became a portrait painter in 1871, exhibiting a portrait of Col. Sykes, M.P., from which time he painted many portraits, one of the principal being that of Professor Blackie.
ARCHIBALD, The Hon. Adams George, C.M.G., Q.C., P.C., Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of Nova Scotia, Dominion of Canada, was born at Truro, N.S., May 18, 1814. He was educated at Pictou Academy, and called to the bar in 1839. He became Solicitor-General in the government of Nova Scotia in 1856, and Attorney-General four years later. He was a delegate to England in 1857, to ascertain the views of the British Government on the question of the union of the North American Provinces. He took an active part in the subsequent conferences on that subject in Canada, and was present in London with the delegation which in 1866 arranged the terms of Confederation. He was made a member of the Canadian Privy Council in 1867, and the same year served as Secretary of State for the Provinces. From May, 1870, until May, 1873, he was Lieut.-Governor of Manitoba and the North-west Territories, and upon resigning that position was appointed Judge in Equity in his native province. Upon the death of the Hon. Joseph Howe, he was appointed his successor in the Lieut.-Governorship of Nova Scotia, and was created a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
ARDITI, Luigi, a musical composer, born July 22, 1822, at Crescentino, Piedmont, was educated as a violinist at the Conservatoire at Milan. After filling the post of musical conductor in various placed in Italy and America, where he remained ten years, he came to London in 1857, and was appointed musical director at Her Majesty's Theatre. Whilst in Constantinople, he received from the Sultan the Order of the Medjidie in acknowledgment of his talent as a composer. In addition to numerous songs composed by Signor Arditi, may