and philologist. He was educated in the Prederick-WiUiam Gym- nasium of his native city, and in the Uniyersities of Berlin and Bonn,where he applied himself to the study of philology. In 1852 he repaired to Italy, to examine the manuscripts in the public libraries of Rome, Florence, and Venice. In May, 1854, he was summoned to Munich by King Maximilian, and he there married the daughter of the eminent writer on art, Franz Kugler. He has written some tragedies, which have been per- formed in various towns of Ger- many, viz., " Francesca di Rimini," 1850; "Ourika,"1852; '^Meleager," 1854 ; " The Men of the Palatinate in Ireland (Die Pfalzerin Irland)," 1855 ; " Elizabeth Charlotte," 1860 ; "The Counts Von der Esche;" and some others, whjch, though never presented on the stage, have been eagerly read by a wide circle of readers. He has also produced narrative and epic poems: "The Brothers," 1852 ; " Thecla," a poem in nine cantos, 1858 ; and a certain number of collections of metrical tales and novels ('* Gesammelten Novellen in Versen," 1863). Be- sides these, he has published various works on philology and sesthetics. His latest production is " Don Jtian*s End," a tragedy, 1883. His collected works were published in 14 vols, 1872—80.
HEYWOOD, James, F.R.S., fifth son of the late Mr. Nathaniel Hey- wood, banker, of Manchester, born May 28, 1810, was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was a senior optime in 1833, but did not graduate B.A. till 1857, when enforced subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles was abolished by the Cambridge University Reform Act, which he did much to promote. He was called to the bar in 1838, but did not practise j was one of the members for North Lancashire from 1847 till 1857, and whilst in the House of Commons took an active part in discassions on
academical subjects. In April, 1850, he moved for an address to the Queen for a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the English Univer- sities, and the prime minister (Lord J. Russell) intimated his intention of recommending her Majesty to issue a commission at some future day. In 1851 he made a motion against aca- demical tests, but was counted out. On the order of the day (June 24, 1854) for the consideration of the Oxford University Bill as amended, Mr. Heywood moved and carried, by 252 votes against 161, the abolition of religious teste at matriculation, but was beaten the same evening in an attempt to abolish all tests on taking degrees, though eventually (June 29) he carried a clause by 233 against 78, in favour of their abolition for a bachelor's degree in arts, law, and medicine. A clause in the Cambridge University Reform Bill doing away with teste on teking degrees in arts, law, medicine, and music, was carried by 118 to 41 (June 20, 1856). Mr. Heywood published "History of University Subscription Teste," in 1853; translations of "The Early Cambridge Stetutes," in 1855 ; "Academical Reform and Univer- sity Representetion," and "The Stete of Biblical Revision," in 1860 ; and " Cambridge University Transactions during the Puritan Controversies."
HIBBERT, John Tomlinson, M.P., eldest son of the late Elijah Hibbert, of Oldham, by Elizabeth, daughter of the late Mr. A. Hilton, was born at Oldham in 1824, and educated at Shrewsbury school and at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 1847 J M.A. 1851). He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1849. Mr. Hibbert, who is a Liberal in politics, un- successfully contested Cambridge in March, 1857, Oldham in 1859, and Blackburn in Sept. 1875. He succeeded in his candidature fur OUlhaiu in May 1862, and he con- tinued to represent that borough