Page:Men of the Time, eleventh edition.djvu/59

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dent of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1861. On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet, in Dec. 1868, he was appointed Secretary of State for India, and he held that position till the downfall of the Liberal Government in Feb. 1874. In the ensuing session he warmly supported the measure introduced and carried by the Conservative Government for the transfer from individuals to congregations of the patronage in the Church of Scotland. He was appointed Lord Privy Seal for the third time in May, 1880, on Mr. Gladstone returning to power. That post he held till April, 1881, when he resigned it, in consequence of a difference with his colleagues in the Cabinet concerning some of the provisions of the Irish Land Bill. In announcing the circumstance to the House of Lords (April 8) he stated that in consequence of certain provisions of the Bill which, in his view, put the ownership of Irish property in commission and abeyance, he had felt obliged to resign his office in the Government, and his resignation had been accepted by Her Majesty. His Grace is Hereditary Master of the Queen's Household in Scotland, Chancellor of the University of St. Andrews, a Trustee of the British Museum, and Hereditary Sheriff and Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire. In 1866 His Grace published "The Reign of Law," which has passed through numerous editions; in 1869 "Primeval Man; an Examination of some recent speculations;" in 1870 a small work on the History and Antiquities of Iona, of which island his Grace is proprietor; in 1874 "The Patronage Act of 1874, all that was asked in 1843, being a Reply to Mr. Taylor Innes;" in 1877 (for the Cobden Club) observations "On the important question involved in the relation of Landlord and Tenant;" and in 1879 "The Eastern Question, from the Treaty of Paris to the Treaty of Berlin, and to the second Afghan War," 2 vols. He married first, in 1844, the eldest daughter of the second Duke of Sutherland (she died May 25, 1878); and secondly, in 1881, Amelia Maria, eldest daughter of Dr. Claughton, Bishop of St. Alban's, and widow of Colonel Augustus Henry Archibald Anson. His Grace's eldest son, the Marquis of Lorne, married in 1871, the Princess Louise. (See Lorne.)

ARMAGH, Archbishop of. (See Beresford.)

ARMITAGE, Edward, R.A., an historical and mural painter, descended from an ancient Yorkshire family; was born in London May 20, 1817, and educated in France and Germany. In 1837 he entered the studio of Paul Delaroche at Paris, and he was selected by that master to assist him in the decoration of the "Hemicycle" at the School of Fine Arts. Three years later Mr. Armitage sent a large picture of "Prometheus Bound" to the Paris Exhibition of Living Painters. To the Cartoon Exhibition at Westminster Hall in the following year he contributed "The Landing of Julius Cæsar in Britain," which took a first-class prize of £300. It was reported that Delaroche had worked upon this cartoon, and consequently the premium awarded to it by the Royal Commissioners was withheld until a second drawing should be executed in this country. The question was speedily decided in the young painter's favour. In 1844 he was a contributor to the Westminster Hall Exhibition of works in fresco, but not with similar success, receiving no prize. At the third competition in 1845 he was more successful, taking a £200 prize for a cartoon and coloured design, "The Spirit of Religion;" and, finally, in 1847, another first prize of £500 was awarded to him for an oil picture, "The Battle of Meanee," now the property of the Queen. After this Mr. Armitage went to Rome, where he remained