entitled "Poetry," which was fol- lowed by others in rapid succession. As a writer of songs, lyrics, and poems for festive occasions, he occupies the first place. He was for many years a popular lec- turer. In 1857 he commenced, in the Atlantic Monthly, a series of articles under the title of "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," which were followed, in 1860, by "The Professor at the Breakfast Table," and in 1872 by "The Poet at the Breakfast Table." In addi- tion he has published " Astrsea " (1850) J "Currents and Counter- Currents in Medical Science " (1861) ; " Elsie Venner, a Bomance of Destiny " (1861) ; " Borderlands in some Provinces of Medical Science " (1862) ; " Songs in Many Keys" (1864); "Soundings from the Atlantic" (1864) ; "Humorous Poems" (1865); "The Guardian Angel" (1868); "Mechanism in Thought and Morals" (1870); " Songs of Many Seasons" (1874) ; "John L. Motley, a Memoir" (1878) ; " The Iron Gate and other Poems " (1880) ; and numerous poems recited at Tarious reunions and dinners. Editions of his col- lected poems have appeared from time to time, the first in 1836, the last in 1881. He is distinguished for his researches in microscopy and auscultation, and has contri- buted largely to current medical Hterature, as well as to the literary journals and reviews.
HOLYOAKE, Gbobqb Jacob, bom at Birmingham, April 13, 1817, was educated at the Me- chanics' Institution in that town. He was appointed Superintendent of Assistants of the first Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures held at Birmingham in 1839; Teacher of Mathematics to the Mechanics'Insti- tution there ; and one of the Lec- turers to explain the Social System of Robert Owen (1841). In 1846 he was awarded the five prizes offered by the Independent Order of Odd Fellows for five new Degree
Lectures upon Knowledge, Charity, Justice, Science, and Progress. He was Acting Secretary of the British Legion sent out to Garibaldi ; and Secretary of the Hyde Park Demon- stration Committee against Lord Palmerston's Conspiracy Bill. Mr. Holyoake is the founder of " Secularism," a system which bases organised action on moral and scientific agreements apart from atheism and theology. He is the author of numerous works on work- ing-class education, theological criticism, politics and co-operation ; "Uses of Euclid;" "Reasoning from Facts;" "Public Speaking and Debate ; " " Trial of Theism ; " " History of Middlesborough-on- Tees ; " " Letters to Lord John Kussell on an Intelligence Fran- chise;" "The Political Situation;" "The History of Co-operation in Bochdale," which caused upwards of 250 co-operative societies to be founded in two years, and has been translated into the chief European and Indian languages; "History of the Co-operative and Social In- stitutions of Halifax ; " " A History of Co-operation in England," in two volumes; and "A New Defence of the Ballot," which Mr. Bright described as the only original argument for it he had seen. He was the editor of thirty volumes of the Reasoner. Mr. Holyoake was the last person imprisoned in Eng- land for alleged atheism. The cause was an answer given in de- bate after a Lecture upon Home Colonies (1841) . Mr. Justice Erskine sentenced him to six months' im- prisonment. Mr. Holyoake was also the last person against whom an indictment was issued by the Court of Exchequer for publishing un- stamped papers in support of the Society for Repealing the Taxes upon Knowledge, Mr. Holyoake having incurred upwards of ^£600,000 of fines. The Repeal of the Newspaper Stamp Act, however, caused the prosecution to be aban- doned. He was chiefly instnimen^