And discovery in the South Polar kegione; and^ after a perilous Jvoyage of four years, with the (Onerous duties of geologist and zoologist, in addition to his medical duties as chief medical officer of the Expedition, thereby saving the coimtry the extra expense of a special naturalist, he was, on his retum> the only officer (eligible for promotion) left unpromoted. From 1845 to 1848 he was Surgeon of H.M. yacht William and Mary at Woolwich, considered a life ap- pointment when he joined her, and had hitherto been so held. He was one of the first, in 1847, to call the attention of the Admiralty to the fate of Sir John Franklin, and his long experience in Polar service enabled him to lay before the Board promising pluis of search, at the time, for the missing ships, volun- teering himself to carry them out. But it was not till after repeated applications, and plan after plan ignored, that he was at last sent out in the North Star in 1852. He was given the command of an open boat, manned by six volunteers from the North Star, which he called the Forlorn Hope, the season being too far advanced ; but after a three weeks' exploration, amid tempestuous weather, he set at rest the then mooted question that there was no opening between Baring Bay and Jones's Sound. On March 13, 1853, he was benighted in a dense fog, and had to bivouac in the snowdrift, with a temi>era- ture 32" Fahr. below zero. Having in vain volunteered to explore Smith Sound into the Polar Ocean, if given the command of the Mary yacht of 12 tons, lying useless at Beechey Island, his former boat's crew volunteering to accompany him, he returned to England in H.M.S. Phcenix. On Jan. 6, 1857, he laid before the Eoyal Geographi- cal Society and the Admiralty his last plan of search, by King Wil- liam's Land , through Beliefs Str^t, for records of the lost ships. This
plan was subsequently successfully carried out by Sir Leopold McClin- tock, and the all-important " re- cord" found, as he had anticipated, near Cape Felix. He was awarded the Arctic Medal in 1857, and the Greenwich Hospital pension in 1876. He was compulsorily placed on the retired list in 1865, deprived of the usual step in rank, from his not having served the time for the " Inspectorship." He is author of the " Boat Voyage up the Wel- lington Channel," '* Plans of Search in file Arctic Ocean," and " Geology of Tasmania, New Zealand, Ant- arctic Continent, and Isles of the South," in Appendix to the " Ant- arctic Expedition."
McCOSH, Jambs, D.D., LL.D., born in Ayrshire, Scotland, in 1811. He was educated at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, became a minister of the Churdii of Scot- land, in Arbroath, in 1835, removed to Brechin in 1839, where he joined the Free Church of Scotland in 1843, and was appointed Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in Queen's College, Belfast, in 1851. In 1868 he went to America, and became President of the College of New Jersey, at Princeton, and has taken a prominent place among American divines and educators. Besides numerous contributions to British and American reviews, he has pub- lished " The Method of the ©ivine Government, Physical and Moral," and, in coznimction with Dr. Dickie,
- ' Typical Forms and Special Ends
in Creation," 1856; "The Intui- tions of the Mind inductively in- vestigated," I860; "The Super- natural in relation to the Natural," 1862; "Examination of Mill's Philosophy," 1866 ; " Inaugural Address at Princeton," 1868 ; "Logic," 1869; "Christianity and Positivism,"187l; "The Scottish Phi- losophy," 1874 ; a reply to Tyndall's noted Belfast Address, 1875 ; " The Development Hypothesis," 1876 ; " The Emotions," 1880 ; and some occasional sermons and addresses.