MICHAEL— MIDHAT PASflA.
Society, for making known in for- eign countries the principles of the English Church, and with that ob- ject in view has edited many dog- matic and controversial treatises in Latin, Italian, Spanish, &c. He has written " Practical Working of the Church in Spain," published in 1851 J " The Moral Theology of the Church of Eome," in 1867 ; " The Outcast and Poor of London,^' in 1858 J "The Wisdom of Piety," in 1869; "But isn't Kingsley right after all?" "On Dr. Newman's Bejection of Li^ori's Doctrine of Equivocation," in 1864; and has contributed to Dr. Smith's "Dic- tionary of the Bible," and to the Commentary on the Bible edited by Canon Cook.
MICHAEL (Grand Dukb), NiooLAiEvrrcH, brother of the late Alexander U.^ Emi>eror of Bussia, and fourth son of the late Czar Nicholas I., was born Oct. 13 (26), 1832. He is a General and Grand Master of Artillery, General Aide- de-Camp to the Czar, GK)vemor- General of the Caucasus, and head of several regiments of artillery, cavalry, and infantry. In the recent war between Bussia and Turkey the Grand Duke Michael had the chief command of the army of the Caucasus. He mar- ried, in Aug., 1857, 01ga-F6odo- rovna (formerly Cecilia Augusta), daughter of the late Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden. The eldest of his children is the Grand Duke Nicholas, who was born in 1859.
MICHEL, Fbancisque Xavieb, a French antiquary, born at Lyons, Feb. 18, 1809, commenced his studies in his native city, and com- pleted them at Paris, in the Col- lege Charlemagne. After having composed a couple of historical ro- mances, he devoted himself exclu- sively to antiquarian researches, and between the years 1830 and 1833 edited several works written in France in mediaeval times, such as " La Chronique de Duguesclin," "Les Chansons de Coucy," "Ma-
homet," and " Le Lai d'Havelok le Danois." In 1835 M. Guizot, then Minister of Public Instruction, commissioned M. Michel to make researches respecting French history and literature in the libraries of England. He was decorated with the Legion of Honour in 1838, and appointed Professor of Foreign Literature at Bordeaux in 1839. M. Michel has edited from the original MSS. a large number of chronicles, poems, and other works, written in French, Anglo-Saxon, or English, between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries; has trans- lated into French the works of Sterne and Goldsmith, and a selec- tion from the writings of Shakes- peare ; and has displayed his vast erudiiion in a number of original works. Among the latter are, "Histoire des Baces Maudites de la France et de TEspagne," 2 vols., 1847 ; " Le Livre d'Or des Metiers," 2 vols., 1861-4 ; " History of Hotels, Taverns, and Caf ^s, written in col- laboration with M. Edouard Four- nier ; " Histoire des Tissus de Soie au Moyen Age," 2 vols., 1852-4; "Les j^cossais en France et les Fran9ais en Ecosse," 2 vols., 1862 ; "Histoire du Commerce et de la Navigation ^ Bordeaux, principale- ment sous TAdministration An- glaise," 2 vols., 1867-71; and "A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language, with the view of illus- trating the rise and progress of civilisation in Scotland," 1882.
MIDHAT PASHA, a Turkish statesman, the son of a Cadi (civil judge), was born at Constantinople in 1822, and educated there. When he was 23 years old he acted as secretary to two commissions ap- pointed in the reign of Sultan Abdul Medjid for the amelioration of the provinces and the introduc- tion of reforms. In this capacity he visited first Konieh and then Castamouni. Next he was ap- pointed Chief of the Bureau of Confidential Beports, and soon afterwards employed in a mission