private expense. In 1852 he ac- cepted the newly-created oflSce of Government Botanist for Victoria j explored there till 1855, examining also the whole mountain vegetation of Australia, previously utterly xm- known, ascended and named Motmt Hotham, the Barkly Banges, and many otiier mountains ; joined, as Phytographic Naturalist, the expe- dition, sent out tmder Augustus Gregory, by the Duke of Newcastle, to explore the Eiver Victoria, and other portions of the north parts of the Australian continent ; was one of the four who reached Termi- nation Lake in 1856 : went through- out the whole other parts of tiie* same expedition, conducted over- land by Gregory to Moreton Bay; accepted the Directorship of the Botuiical Garden of Melbourne in 1867, which office he held tiU 1873, raising that institution to high fame, and establishing scientmc relations with aJd parts of the globe, in order to introduce useful plants into the colony, and to make known Australian plants abroad. He was one of the Commissioners for the Industrial Exhibitions in Melbourne in 1854, 1862, and 1867 ; has issued eight volumes of his " Fragmenta Phytographiea AustraUas;" two vo- lumes, Is^gely illustrated, on the " Plants of Victoria," irrespective of several other publications; con- tributed to the "Flora Australien- sis," of which six volumes have ap- peared. He was elected a Fellow of the Boyal Society of London in 1861 ; was included in the first no- minations for the Order of SS. Michael and George; nominated a Commander of the Order of St. lago of Portugal, and of Isabella of Spain ; and created a hereditary Baron by the King of Wurtemberg, in 1871. Many moxmtains, rivers, and lakes are named in Australia in honour of Baron von Mueller, also a glacier and river in New Zealand, and a mountain in Spitz- bergen. The Baron still continues his researches in Melbourne. In
1879 he was rewarded for his colo- nial services as a naturalist with the Knight Commandership of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
MUIR, SHt William, K.C.S.I., LL.D., son of Mr. William Muir of Glasgow, was born in 1819. He was educated at the Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow; entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1837; has been secretary to the Govern- ment of India in the foreign de- puiment; was appointed provi- sional member of the Govemor- General*s Council in India in Dec, 1867> and Lieutenant-Governor of the North- West Provinces in 1868 ; was invested with the Order of the Star of India in 1867 ; appointed an ordinary member of the Council of the Governor-General of India in 1847 ; and retired in 1876. He was created an honorary D.C.L. of the University of Oxford in 1882. His works are, " The Life of Mahomet and History of Islam, to the Era of the Hegira," 4 vols.. Loud., 1858-61, new edit., abridged, 1 vol., 1877 ; "The Cor An, its Composition and Teaching, and the Testimony it bears to the Holy Scriptures,'* 1878 ; "Extracts from the Cordn, with English Bendering," 1880; and " T^e Early Caliphate and Eise of Islam," being the Bede Lecture for 1881, delivered before the Univer- sity of Cambridge.
MUKHTAE-PACHA, Ghazi Ahmed, springs direct from a family engaged in trade, and some members of it still continue in the paternal employment. His grand- father was Hadji Ibrahim Agha, head of the guild of silk merchants of Broussa, of Asia Minor. His father, Hadji HaHl A^ha, died young, and Ahmed Muldit^, who was born in 1837, was brought up by his grandfather, who sent him in 1849 to the preparatory military school of his native city. Young Katyrdschy Oghlu — ^for such is the family name, which, in accordance with Eastern custom, is seldom if ever used — manifested a remarkable