educated at Cheam, Surrey, then at Eton, next at Balliol College, Oxford, and afterwards at the Inner Temple. He was served heir to his maternal g^randfatiier's estate of Gask, in Perthshire, in 1867. Mr. Oliphant has published the "Life of the Emperor Frederick the Second," 1862; "Jacobite Lairds of Gask, 1870; "Sources of Standard English," 1873 ; " Life of the Due de Luynes," with other essays, 1875 ; and " Old and Middle English," 1878. He is now work- ing at " New English."
OLLIER, Edmund, was born in London, Nov. 26, 1826, being son of the late Charles OUier, author and publisher. He first began writing in Avnsworth's Magazine at the end of 1844. He wrote largely for Dickens's Household Words and All the Tear Bound, from 1850 to the close of 1870; was sub-editor of the Leader, 1855-8 ; editor of the Atlas, 1859-60; literary editor of the London Review, 1864-6 ; and an occasional writer in the Daily News, 1853-77. He has edited some of the writings of Charles Lamb and Leigh Hunt, with critical and bio- graphical introductions. He be- came connected, as a writer, with Messrs. CasseU's establishment in 1869. Mr. OUier has written for that firm " The Dor^ Gallery," 1870 ; "History of the Franco-German War," 2 vols., 1871-2; "Essay, Critical and Historical, on Sacred Art," 1873 ; " History of the United States," 3 vols., 1875-6-7 ; "History of the Eusso-Turkish War," 2 vols., 1878-9 ; "Universal History" (now in course of publication) . His other works are : " Poems from the Greek Mythology, and Miscellane- ous Poems," 1867; and "Our British Portrait-Painters, from Sir Peter Lely to James Sant," 1874, a rather misleading title, since it is really a set of detached essays on subjects connected with the painters and their works. In 1867 he re- ceived from King Victor Emmanuel the cross of the Order of Saints
Maurice and Lazarus, for serrices in the English press to the cause of Italian independence.
OLLIVIEB, Olivebb ijmx, a French statesman, born at Mar- seilles, July 2, 1825; became a member of the Paris bar in 1847; and in 1848 was CommissaTy- General of the Bepublic at Mar- seilles; wasPr^fetatLangres; and returned to the bar in 1849. Elected as Opposition candidate for the third ciroonscription of the Seine in 1857, he took part in several important discussions ; amongst which may be mentioned those relating to the laws respecting public safety, the expedition to Italy, and the regulation of the press. During the session of 1860 he was one of the most distinguished members of a small group of Oppo- sition deputies, known by the name of " The Five." In the meantime he undertook the defence of M. Vacherot, indicted for his work entitled " La D^mocratie,** and in consequence of the style he adopted in pleading, was suspended for three months, an appeal against this judgment failing. In 1863 he was re-elected for Paris, and in the first session was distinguished by his report on the law relating to coalitions, and then showed such moderation in his relations with the Government as to cause a cold- ness between himself and his old political friends, a feeling which was increased during the session of 1865, in which year he was elected a member of the Council-General of the Var. In July of the same year he received the appointment of Judicial Counsel and Commis- sary-General of the Viceroy of Egypt in Paris, and retired trom the Paris bar. M. "knnle OUivier was chosen by the Emperor as arbitrator of the difficulties which arose relative to the Isthmus of Suez, and it was ^pon his report that the final decision was founded. The session of 1866-67 witnessed the complete separation of M,