secondly, in Sept., 1869, Mdllo. Gravier, the daughter of a mer- chant of Marseilles.
OLMSTED, Fbbdbbick Law, landscape gardener, born in Hart- ford, Connecticut, Nov. 10, 1822. He studied at Yale College, devot- ing special attention to engineering and the sciences connected with agriculture. In 181S he purchased a fruit-farm on Staten Island, near New York, and while successfully managing it, studied landscape gardening. In 1850 he made a pedestrian tour through England and portions of the Continent, an account of which was given in his " Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England," 1852. In 1 1852-53, as correspondent of the New York Timesj he travelled through ! the Southern States with the special ' purpose of studying the effects of slavery upon agriculture. The re- sults of this journey, and of a sub- sequent one, were afterwards pub- lished in separate works : "A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States,^' 1856 ; "A Journey through Texas," 1857 ; " A Journey in the Black Country," 1860 ; and " The Cotton Kingdom," 1861. In the meanwhile, in 1855, he made a tour through France, Italy, and Ger- many for the purpose of observing parks and rural grounds. In 1856 he secured the prize for the best plan of laying out the New York Central Park, and was appointed architect and chief engineer. He continued in charge of the Park until 1861, when the civil war having broken out, he was appointed Seorefiiry and Executive Officer of the Sanitary Commission. From 1864 to 1866 he spent in California, when he was made one of the Com- missioners of the National Park of the Yosemite. He returned to New York in 1866, and had charge of the laying out of the Brooklyn Prospect Park. He has since been associated in designs for parks and other pub- lic works at Washington, Chicago, San Francisco, and other cities.
OMMANEY, Vice-Admibal Sib Ebasmtjs, C.B., F.E.S., is the seventh son of the late Sir Francis Molyneux Ommaney, the well- known Navy Agent, and sometime M.P. for Barnstaple, and nephew of the late Admiral Sir John A. Ommaney, E C.B. He was born in London in 1814, and entered the na,T^ in 1826, passing his examina- tion in 1833 and obtaining his first commission in 1835. Having been midshipman in the Pique under the late Captain (afterwards Admiral) H. J. Bous, attached to the force off Lisbon, and subsequently Flag- Lieutenant to his uncle. Sir John Ommaney, he was advanced to the rank of Commander in 1810, and from 1841 till the dose of 1844 was employed on board the Vesuvitu steamship. He became Captain in 18 i6, attained flag rank in 1864, and was promoted to Vice- Admiral in 1871. He was nominated a Com- panion of the Bath (Military Divi- sion) in 1867, and is a Fellow of the Eoyal Society. He was knighted in 1877.
ONTAEIO, Bishop of. (S«« Lewis, Db.)
OPPERT, Julius, Ph.D., was bom at Hamburg, July 9, 1825, of a Jewish family, and is a nephew, on the mother's side, of the cele- brated jurist. Professor Edward Oans of Berlin. He received his early education at the Johanneum in his native town, and then studied law at Heidelberg and Bonn, but eventually turned his attention to Oriental studies. In 1847, after having pursued his studies for two years at Berlin, he went to take the degree of Doctor in Philosophy in the University of Kiel, with a I^tin thesis on the criminal law of the Hindoos ("De Jure Hindorum Criminali"). Being precluded, as a Jew, from any public appointment in Germany, he went to Paris in 1847, and became teacher of Ger- man and English at Laval in 1848, and at Bheims in 1850. In 1851 he was sent, with Fressel and Thomas,