lesme. Following the example of so many members of that learned order, he devoted himself to the study of ecclesiastical antiquities, and composed an admirable " His- toire de Saint-Leger," which was followed by his " Spicilegium Soles- mense," 5 vols, Paris, 1852-60, a collection of documents, previously unpublished, in elucidation of Church history. To obtain the materials for this superb work, Dom Pitra visited nearly all the great libraries in Europe. Sum- moned to Rome by Pope Pius IX. in 1858, he was directed to study the ancient and modem canons of the Oriental Churches, and the re- sidts of his labours are embodied in a work entitled " Juris Ecclesi- astici GrsBCorum Historia et Monu- menta," the first volume of which, printed by the Sacred Congregation of the Propaganda, appeared in 1864. Dom Pitra was appointed a member of that Congregation for the religious affairs of the East in 1862, and created a Cardinal Priest of the Holy Boman Church, of the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, March 16, 1863. His Eminence holds the office of "Librarian of the Holy Homan Church."
PLANCY, De. (See Collin, J.A.S.C.D.)
PLAYFAIR, The Right Hon. Sib Lyon, K.C.B., M.P., LL.D., F.R.S., son of Mr. George Playfair, Chief Inspector-General of Hos- pitals of Bengal, and nephew of the late Col. Sir Hugh L. Playfair, bom at Meerut, Bengal, May 21, 1819, was educated at St. Andrews, N.B., and at a very early age took especial interest in chemisfery. In 1834 he studied chemistry under Professor Thomas Graham, at the Andersonian University, Glasgow ; but his health failing in 1837, he revisited India, and upon his re- covery returned to England, and rejoined his friend Graham, then Professor to the London University. In 1838 he went to Giessen, to study organic chemistry under Liebig,
translated some of his works into English, and on his return to Scot- land undertook the management of the large calico print-works of Messrs. Thompson, of Clitheroe ; whence he removed, in 1843, to Manchester, and was appointed Professor of Chemistry in the Royal Institution. In 184-1., at the re- commendation of the late Sir Robert Peel, he was appointed on the commission constituted to exa- mine into the sanitary condition of our large towns and populous dis- tricts, and his reports were cha- racterised by great ability. At the close of the commission. Professor Playfair was appointed by the late Sir R. Peel, Chemist to the Museum of Practical Geology. In the Great Exhibition of 1851 he visited the manufacturing districts, and by drawing up an elaborate classifica- tion of objects of industry, and by personal communication with the manufacturers, exercised an impor- tant influence on the completeness of that great undertaking. He was appointed Special Commissioner in charge of the department of Juries ; and at the close of the Ex- hibition, in recognition of his scien- tific services, he was made a Com- panion of the Bath, and received an appointment in the late Prince Consort's household. At the Great Exhibition of 1862, he again had charge of the department of Juries, and was intrusted with the appoint- ment of the jurors, who numbered upwards of 600 persons, consisting of the most eminent men in rank, science, and industry, of all coun- tries of Europe. In the French Exhibition of 1878, the Prince of Wales, who was the President of the English Commission, appointed Mr. Playfair as Chairman of the Finance Committee, which was charged with the executive work. On the establishment of the de- partment of Science and Art, in 1853, he was appointed Joint Sec- retary with Mr. Henry Cole; but in 1856, when Mr. Cole assumed