Page:Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol 2 (1876).djvu/329

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great trade. It is a regular Babel' (ii. 54). The place is mentioned in P. Orazio della Penna's account of Tibet as Tongor {J. Asiat. 2nd S. xiv. 195). And in the Chinese 'Itinerary' already quoted, we find under the first march out of Sining-fu: 'Between this and Sining there is a large lamasery, Denger. In (1727) this became a trade-centre for all the Mongols west of the Hoang-ho.'—[Y.]

P. 146.

Some naturalists have distinguished between the Kulan of West Turkestan, and the Kyang (or Djiggetai of Pallas) of Tibet and Mongolia. But it appears from the text that the Kulan of the Turki-speaking people of Central Asia is the same as the Kyang of the Tibetans, and of our Trans-himalayan sportsmen. And this is confirmed by a passage in Dr. Bellew's 'Kashmir and Kashgar' (p. 400), from which it appears that a place on the Yanghi Dábán Road is called Kulan Uldi, 'The wild horse (ass?) died.' Now I believe there is certainly only one species in the Trans himalayan region; indeed, I see in another place Dr. Bellew says: We came upon a herd of six or seven kyang or culan' (p. 182).—[Y.]

P. 109.

Tangut was a kingdom well known by that name in the Middle Ages, and nearly corresponded to modern Kansuh in a general way. Indeed Kansuh was, under the Mongol Emperors (1260-1368) the official Chinese name of the region known to the Mongols and Western Asiatics as Tangut. It was, however, in the Middle Ages also called Ho-si, 'Country west of the (Yellow) River;' and in a Perso-Chinese Dictionary, made about A.D. 1400, Tangut is explained by Ho-si. The bulk of the inhabitants were of Tibetan blood, and the capital was at Ning-hia, on the