Page:Mongolia, the Tangut country, and the solitudes of northern Tibet vol 2 (1876).djvu/332

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Tibet, which is on the confines of India Proper, and is subject to the Great Khan. They have in it great plenty of bread and wine as anywhere in the world. The folk of that country dwell in tents made of black felt. But the chief and royal city is all built with walls of black and white, and all its streets are very well paved. In this city no one shall dare to shed the blood of any, whether man or beast, for the reverence they bear to a certain idol which is there worshipped. In that city dwelleth the Abassi, i.e. in their tongue, the Pope, who is head of all the idolaters, and who has the disposal of all their benefices, such as they are, after their manner.' This is very curious, as showing that there was a Grand Lama (at Lhassa?) recognised as Pope of Lamaism many years before the period assigned to the establishment of the spiritual dynasty of the Dalai Lama as now existing.—[Y].

P. 122.

There is no need to add to what has been written about these Tungani, whom Russian ears apparently transform into Dungans. The name does not seem to be applied in any sense of race, but simply to be the popular name by which Chinese Mahommedans are known among the Turki-speaking people of Central Asia, and on the Russian frontier.

The earliest mention of it that I have met with is in 'Izzat Ullah's 'Itineraries,' published in the seventh volume of the 'Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society' (p. 310). The name also occurs thus in Burnes:—

' These soldiers (of the Chinese garrisons in Kashgar) are drawn from the tribe of Toonganee, who claim relationship to the army of Alexander; they are Mahommedans from the adjacent provinces, but dress as Chinese. '[1]

And in Mr. Wathen's 'Notes on Chinese Tartary,' derived from certain pilgrims who passed through Bombay to Mecca in 1835, we find the following:—

  1. Travels to Bokhara, 1834; ii. 229.