including: the new destination of the car, a lading code for the car, any special handling associated with the car, and a tonnage figure. This information was entered into the computer system’s car file which contains, in addition to the above information, the physical characteristics of each car on the SP system. The yard clerks understood that the tonnage figure would be updated at a later time when the shipper’s bill of lading was received in the billing office. SP’s director of clerical operations testified that cars are often moved in service before the shipper’s bill of lading information is received and entered into the computer system. He further testified that following the train derailment, “We have changed the system so that regardless of what estimate is put into the release, the computer will go to the car file and automatically update that tonnage to the capacity of the car.” According to the director of clerical operations, the maximum tonnage figure will remain in the car file of the computer until the shipper’s bill of lading is received and only when the bill of lading indicates a shipper-certified weight will the maximum tonnage figure be adjusted to reflect the shipper-certified weight. If an estimated weight is indicated on the shipper’s bill of lading, the maximum tonnage figure will remain in the car file of the computer system until the car has been weighed. The nearest scale to the Mojave Yard was located at West Colton.
The director of clerical operations testified that the clerks in the various outlying areas are responsible for checking the accuracy and completeness of shipper-tendered bills of lading. According to his testimony, the first line supervisor for these clerks is located in Los Angeles. He further stated that during the last few years, shippers have been sending their bill of lading information directly to the central office in Los Angeles rather than dealing with clerks at the various outlying areas.
The Calnev Pipeline
Description.—The Calnev pipeline was constructed by Mid-Mountain Contractors, Inc., during 1969 and 1970. The approximately 248-mile-long pipeline, which transports petroleum products including gasolines, jet fuels, and No. 2 diesel fuel, originates at the Colton Pump Station at Colton, California, and terminates at Las Vegas, Nevada. From the Colton Pump Station (elevation 1,040 feet), the pipeline route is generally northward and crosses Cajon Pass at an elevation of 4,480 feet at MP 28 (figure 5). From Colton to about MP 236, the pipeline is 14 inches in diameter, and MP 235 to the Las Vegas terminal, the pipeline is 8 inches in diameter. The first 107-mile section of the 14-inch-diameter pipeline was constructed of the same grade of pipe that was involved at the rupture site. The pipe at the rupture site was manufactured of steel by Kaiser Steel Corporation to American Petroleum Institute standard 5LX 52, using an electric resistance welding process. The pipe had a 0.312-inch wall thickness and weighed 45.61 pounds per foot. As a minimum, the pipe was required to have a specified yield strength of 52,000 psi and a specified tensile strength of 66,000 psi. Records of tests performed on the steel used to manufacture the pipe indicates that time steel exceeded these minimum requirements with some tests showing minimum specified yield strengths of 66,000 psi and minimum specified tensile strengths of 74,430 psi and greater. The pipe was coated