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Gathering—Shirring—Tuctc Shirrings—Cord Shirrings—Scalloped or Snail Shirrings—Simple Ruche—Three-Tuck Ruche—Box-Plaited or Gathered Ruches—Single Ruche with One Cord Shirring—Double Ruche with One Cord Shirring—Double Ruche with Two Cord Shirrings—Puff Ruche—Corded Puff Trimming—Variation of Plain Puffings with Cords—Box Plaiting with Corded Piping—Quilling or Side-Plaited Trimmings

FOR the shirred trimmings given in these chapters the softest materials should be used.

Plaited trimmings may be made of very soft materials or of materials with more body.

Any of the materials may be cut double.

Soft ribbons requiring no finish at the edges may be used effectively for these trimmings.

Most materials for the ruchings and puffings may be cut bias or straight.

Chiffon should always be cut lengthwise or crosswise, never bias.

Silks and satins lie in softer folds if they are cut bias or crosswise.

If the edges are to be frayed, the materials must be cut lengthwise or crosswise. Crosswise is preferable, for the threads are closer and make a thicker fringe.

If net is to be used with raw edges, it should be cut on the line of the straight threads which run lengthwise, or bias. You can easily determine the direction of these threads on the piece you are using by stretching the net a little in different directions. Net is more easily hemmed if cut as above, but for a double ruche it may be cut lengthwise, crosswise or bias.

Different materials require different amounts of fulness for shirred ruches. A soft fabric such as chiffon requires three times the length of the finished ruche. Taffeta, messaline and such materials which have a little more body require only about twice the finished length.

THE WIDTH OF RUCHES—On the single ruches you must allow from one-quarter to one-half inch for each cord, the amount depending on the size of the cord. If the edges are to be hemmed or rolled, sufficient allowance should be made for that finish.

For a double ruche calculate the width of a single ruche and double the amount.

CLEAN EVEN EDGES are important, especially if the ruche is to be frayed. The best way to get a good edge for strips cut crosswise or lengthwise is to pull a thread of the material.

THE EDGES OF SINGLE RUCHES may be finished in different ways, depending on the material. Taffeta may be frayed (Ill. 331), pinked (Ill. 338), picoted (Chapter 25, page 119) or finished with tiny hems.

Messaline and crêpe de Chine can be frayed, picoted or hemmed.

Chiffon may have its edges picoted, or rolled, and whipped tightly with fine stitches in the same or contrasting color (Chapter 25. page 123.)

Net may be picoted, hemmed with a same or contrasting color, or if it is a fine mesh, it can be cut in such a way that the edge needs no finish.

STRIPS should be joined as neatly as possible. Some nets can be seamed with an