threads. The lengthwise threads run parallel to the selvedge. (Ill. 13) Crosswise threads run from selvedge to selvedge.(Ill. 13.)
A LENGTHWISE FOLD is a fold made parallel to the selvedge. (Ill. 13.)
A TRUE BIAS runs diagonally across the material at right angles to the lengthwise and crosswise threads. (Ill. 14.)
True Bias is obtained by spreading the material on the table and making a mark seven or eight inches from one corner on both the selvedge and the cut end. Lay a yardstick across the corner, touching both these marks, and draw a line. (Ill. 14.) Make as many marks on both edges as there are strips needed, marking them the required width. Then cut carefully , following the line and using sharp scissors.
When the material for the bias bands is alike on both sides, as in the case of corded silk, for instance, be careful to have the cut strips all on the same bias.
Sometimes, in cutting, if the material is very pliable, the edges will stretch, and in time the cutting line will deviate from the original mark. It is well, in cutting many strips, to lest the bias line occasionally, by laying the yardstick across the material, and cutting a new edge if the old one is not even.
Bias bands, folds, ruffles, facings, etc., must be cut on a true bias to give satisfactory results. For rounding corners or following curved lines, or making folds or ruffles hang gracefully, it is impossible to use successfully material that is cut on the straight of the weave. To maintain a perfect bias, the strips should be of equal width throughout their entire length.
TO JOIN BIAS STRIPS, lay the two diagonal ends together as shown in Illustration 15 and baste in a seam. (Ill. 15.) It will then be seen that when the joined strips are lapped back, the grain of both pieces runs correctly in the same direction. (Ill. 16.)
PERFORATIONS. Every piece of the pattern is marked with perforations and notches which have different meanings and different uses.