Right Side of Material—Sponging—Steaming—Nap or Pile—Cutting Stripes, Plaids, Figures and Diagonals—Cutting a Kimono Sleeve Gamnent—Handling Velvets—Silks and Chiffons
THE RIGHT SIDE. Most materials have a right and wrong side. In double-fold materials the right side is folded inside to protect it from becoming shop-worn. In materials where it is difficult to tell the right side from the wrong the selvedge is usually smoother on the right side than on the wrong side. In serge or diagonal weaves the twills run downward from left to right on the right side of the material.
SPONGING. Almost all the wool materials should be sponged before they are used. Sponging shrinks the material and if it were not done before the material was made up the material would shrink the first damp day and ruin the appearance and possibly the usefulness of the garment. Sponging also prevents the ordinary spotting from rain, drops of water, etc. It is a necessary protection to your material.
There are certain wool materials such as velours, duvetyn, wool plush and materials of similar character that should not be sponged. Very thin, open-meshed materials should not he sponged either, but most wool materials should be sponged either at the store where you buy them or at home. Most large shops will do the sponging for you, but it is easy to do it yourself.
If you are uncertain as to whether your material should be sponged or not experiment with a small piece of it first. If it shrinks too much or changes its a appearance or color, do not sponge it.
For sponging you will need a large table and ironing blanket and a strip of heavy unbleached muslin the width of your material and one-half its length.
Before sponging your material cut off the selvedge or clip it at intervals. Lay your material face down on the table. Wet the muslin with cold water and wring it out. Spread it out, pulling out all the wrinkles and lay it over half of your material. Fold the other half of the material over it, roll the material and sponging cloth together in a tight roll and let it lie overnight, covered with a piece of muslin and some newspapers so that the moisture will be retained.
In the morning unroll the material, pressing it dry on the wrong side as you unroll it. In sponging material of double width open it out its full width and sponge it in the same way, using a double width of muslin for the shrinking process.
The heavier wash materials of the cotton and linen order should be shrunk in the same way before they are made up.
Voiles, fine mulls, organdies, Swisses, etc., are not to be shrunk, for the shrinking changes them too much and they are not as pretty afterward.
STEAMING. Certain wool materials, such as velours and duvetyn should, be steamed instead of sponged. Use the same table, ironing blanket and unbleached muslin as for sponging. Lay the material face down on the blanket as for sponging. Wet the muslin and lay it over the material as for sponging. Hold an iron so that it just touches the material enough to let the steam go through the material. Pass it over the muslin, but do not let it rest on it or it will mark the material. It must just touch the muslin.
NAP OR PILE. Velvet, velveteen, panne velvet, corduroy and plush, and a few wool materials like broadcloth have a distinct pile or nap. Except in the case of a kimono sleeve garment the nap or pile must run the same way in every part of the garment. In materials with a pile such as velvet, velveteen, corduroy or plush, the material must be used with the pile running up so that the nap will fall out and show the full richness and