11 S. XL MAYS, 1915.]
NOTES AND QUERIES.
AN ALPHABET or STRAY NOTES (11 S. xi. "-261). Aicester, which is in Warwickshire, still retains a local pronunciation, but is now " Olster " or " Auster," both forms being in use. The town is situated at the junction of the Alne and Arrow rivers. The late Mr. W. H. Duignan dealt with the meaning of the prefix under Alne, on p. 10 of ' War- wickshire Place - Names '; the terminal " coaster," " ceastre," of course implies a fortress. It is interesting to recall that in 1903 a beautiful walrus ivory tau cross of the tenth century was dug up in the garden of Aicester Rectory, end is now in the ."British Museum. A. 0. C.
ROSES \s CAUSE OF COLDS AND SNEEZING (11 S. xi. 280). This is not only a prevalent belief, but also, 1 think, now usually accepted as a scientific fact. The late Sir Morell Mackenzie, the well-known throat specialist, wrote a book on ' Hay-Fever and Rose- Cold.' The pollen of certain grasses, especi- ally the anthoxanthum, which produces what is called hay-fever, as well as that of the rose, the privet, and certain species of chrysanthemum, cause great irritation of the nasal mucous membrane in susceptible subjects. Pope's suggestion that a man with a hypersensitive nervous system might " die 'of a rose in aromatic pain " is not so far-fetched or so impossible a con- tingency as it might at first sight appear to be to the casual reader, or to the sceptical, ,but uninformed critic.
J. FOSTER PALMER,
Many flowers cause pollen -catarrh, among them the garden chrysanthemum and the ox-eye daisy, which is a wild chrysanthe- mum. The' primrose also affects certain people. A friend of mine who suffers from hay -asthma finds that a great number of flowers tell on her too, including roses ^and sweet peas. S. Z.
The belief that roses cause symptoms of feverish catarrh is held not only in India, but in America, where the illness is known as rose- sickness, and is undoubtedly well founded.
The sneezing, swollen eyes, flushes and chills, &c., are exactly the same as in hay- fever, and no doubt due to the same cause a toxin borne upon the pollen of the flowers. Idiosyncrasy bulks largely in the case of irritation caused by various substances : nearly every one is affected by ipecacuanha dust, many by linseed meal; and other plants besides grasses and roses have been found to give rise to serious and disabling
attacks of mucous irritation. When plough- ing through heather waist-deep, with the shrub in full bloom and the pollen flying in clouds at every movement, I have observed a companion almost rendered breathless by exhausting fits of sneezing and choking, though personally I was quite unaffected.
Besides the toxic effects of rose-pollen, it is possible that the volatile oil of the flowers plays a part in mechanical irritation. To sniff strongly at a quantity of virgin attar of rose is anything but agreeable, and contacts with it on any sensitive portion of the body smart very severely. I recollect reading some- where long ago of a case where a ship in the Mediterranean carrying a barrel of the precious substance had this burst open in the hold, with the result that some men sent to secure it lost their lives from the fumes. J. J. HUNTER JOHNSTON.
[M. D. also thanked for reply.]
LONDON'S SPAS, BATHS, AND WELLS (11 S. xi. 2-17). In the excerpt from the Pro- ceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine provided at the above reference theie is at least one statement to which exception must be taken. That the so-called Roman Bath is fed " from springs at Hampstead " is not only improbable, but impossible. Theie was never occasion to seek such a remote source of supply, as the wells arid springs in the neighbourhood of Strand Lane were sufficient. Diprose provides many references to the wells near Clement's Inn and under the old "Dog Tavern " that were diverted to feed this bath; but, although there has been no authoritative statement, we may infer that the excavations and recon- struction of the whole area containing these would have removed this supply, and the bath has now its own spring or receives water from the common source.
MANKINKOLES (11 S. xi. 267). In six towns of Lancashire the name of Mankin- holes occurs, with the following variants : Mankenols, Mankinoles (Bury, 1590-1646); Mancknoles (Burnley, 1562-1653); Man- kenholes, Manckholes Mancknoiles, Manck- nowells, Mangnarles, Mangnowld, Mang- nowls, Mangnoyles, Manknols, Meancles (Padiham, 1573-1653); Mancknolls, Manck- noles, Mancknols, Mancknowles, Man kin- holes (Colne, 1599-1653); Mangnholes, Magri- holes, Mangholes, Maynholes (Blackburn, 1600-1660); Mankiiowles (New-Church-in- Rossendale, 1653-1723). It will be noticed that the a,bove-named towns are all adjacent