ii s. ix. MAR. 28, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES.
EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD (11 S. ix. 191). Dr. Wallis Budge in 'The Mummy' (Cambridge, 1893, p. 202) shows that the collection of distinct compositions which are found inscribed upon pyramids, walls of tombs, sarcophagi, coffins and papyri, amu- lets, and other objects buried in the tombs with the dead, w T as called ' Rituel Funeraire ' by Champollion, and that this misleading name was adopted by De Rouge, who in his ' Etudes sur le Rituel Fune"raire des Anciens figyptiens ' brought forward reasons for so doing, and considered that all he had said " ju stifle suffisamment, suivant nous, le litre choisi par Champollion." But had Champollion * lived to examine the work further, Dr. Budge contends, he would have seen that it was not a ' Ritual.' This collection of chapters was entitled ' Todten- buch ' by Lepsius in 1842, and by the name ' Book of the Dead ' it is now most generally known. A. R. BAYLEY.
The naire ' Book of the Dead' was first used after the ' Totenbuch der alten Aegyp- ten,' thus called because it was given to the dead in their grave, and applied by Richard Lepsius to his edition of an hieroglyphic papyrus preserved at Turin in 1842 ; ' Ritual of' the Dead ' is after ' Le Rituel Funeraire de Pamonth,' i.e., an old Egyptian papyrus of a Demotic text preserved in Paris, and first edited under this name by Eugene Revillout, since 1880. Its full title is 'Rituel Funeraire de Pamonth en De- motique, avec les Textes Hieroglyphiques et Hieratiques Correspondants.' Cf. also ' Schiaparelli, Libro del Funerali ' (Turin, 1881). H. KREBS.
THE LIGHT BRIGADE AT BALACLAVA (11 S. ix. 186). The dismounted men in all cavalry regiments are clerks, cooks, batmen, &c. HAROLD MALET, Col.
MAGISTRATES WEARING HATS ON THE BENCH (11 S. ix. 189). R, B. P. asks whether this custom obtained only in the London police magistrates' courts, or was extended to the provinces.
I can say that it has been the custom for many years for the Chairman of Quarter Sessions in the county of Dorset, and, no doubt, in many other counties, to wear his hat* whilst upon the Bench. It is intended, I believe, to denote that he represents the Sovereign in his judicial capacity. The
- I am glad to say that, notwithstanding the
greater latitude now allowed in men's headgear, it is only the " tall " silk hat that is so worn.
same custom was also followed by the various chairmen of Petty Sessions, though in more modern days it is, I think, more often dispensed with. I do not remember that any of the attendant magistrates did so, although they are of equal or co-ordinate authority with the chairman, and may be equally said to represent His Majesty in dispensing justice. This practice would confirm that of the London police, or sti- pendiary, magistrates referred to by your correspondent, who sit singly upon the Bench.
I remember a story told of a certain criminal who, upon being convicted of some offence, reviled the presiding magistrate, who sentenced him, for daring to wear his hat as he sat just beneath the royal arms, which in many Courts, both Petty and at Quarter Sessions, surmount the chairman's seat ! J. S. UDAL, F.S.A.
In the sixties of the last century I often saw magistrates in Yorkshire wear their hats in Court when sitting in Petty Sessions. There was not any rule about it. Sometimes they wore their hats ; sometimes they did not. F. NEWMAN.
REVERSED ENGRAVINGS (11 S. ix. 189). Reversed engravings of subject pictures must be rather uncommon, owing to the resulting left-handedness in action to which E. D. T. refers. In the matter of portraits, however, the prints very frequently appear in reverse. I have noticed it again and again, not among mezzotints, but among the prints of lesser size and worth, both in line and stipple. Many of these were probably engraved from a more costly engra.ving, rather than from the original picture. I believe that Reynolds's portrait of Burke, now in the Council Hall in Bristol, faces the other way in the some* what scarce engraving in stipple by J. Hardy. MARGARET LAVINGTON.
" SOTJGH " (11 S. ix. 79, 198). In poor, much - discussed Ulster, whatever be our shortcomings, we may at least claim to- know how our forefathers spoke the Scots tongue they handed down to us through more than two centuries. Therefore I venture to say that the word " sough " is there in common daily use, and is never spoken so as to rime with "ruff."
MR. BAYNE gives the very sound we use in Ulster, and he aptly quotes Burns, whose songs are dear to Ulster Scots as speaking their own tongue. Our gh is a very thick and somewhat unbeautiful sound, and may