NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s, ix. JAN. 11, 1902.
Post Machine," as it was called, although it played an important part in the history of long-distance travelling. The vehicle appears to have been adopted about the year 1756, at least it does riot seem to have been adver- tised before that time, which is seven years before the date given at the above reference. On 25 December, 1756, "Two New Post Machines " were advertised to " set out every Monday, Wednesday and Friday for Bath and London in two days, one from the Rose Inn, and the other from the White Swan, Holborn Bridge, at 6 A.M. precisely. One pound three shillings for each passenger, allowing each 14 Ib. weight of luggage, and all above to pay Three Half-pence per pound." Whitehall Evening Port, 25 December, 1756.
The Bristol machine, which left the "Saracen's Head " in Friday Street, also took two days for the journey, setting out "at five in the morning every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, and putting up at the White Lion, Bristol. Fare, \l. 5s.; each fare allowed 14 Ib. weight, all above to pay Three Half pence per Pound, by the way of Chippenham, and not to go to Bath " ( Whitehall Evening Post, 6 April, 1756). In the year 1757 a "flying machine" on steel springs was established by the merchants of Liverpool after the manner of the Manchester " Hying coach " (Capt. Malet, 'Annals of the Road,' 1876,
P- 14). J. HOLDEN MACMlCHAEL.
Wimbledon Park Road.
In a book just published by Chapman & Hall, viz., 'The Norwich Road,' by C. G. Harper, at pp. 34-5, is a description of the " Norwich Machine," that ran three times a week to London in March, 1762. I think this may be interesting to your corre- spondent. ROBERT BUKNINGHAM.
The Rev. Lewis Davies, in his 'Supple- mentary English Glossary,' quotes to the above effect from Goldsmith, ' Citizen of the World,' letter xlviii. ; Anstey, 'New Bath Guide,' letter xiii.; Walpole, 'Letters/ iv 12 (1775) ; and ' Sketches by Boz ' (Mr. Minns). He adds that the only vehicle now so called is a bathing-machine. In horse-dealing par- lance a "machiner" is a van horse at the present day. jj p L_
[Cycles are commonly so called.]
PAYING RENT AT A TOMB IN CHURCH (9 th S viu. 302, 355,411).-In Scotland the usual place tor paying a redemption or mortgage was at or on an altar in the parish or other church. Atter the Reformation the style of the deed frequently ran as where " Sanct James Altar the Apostell sumtym was situat" or where
the hie altar usit to stand." One reversion
dated 1567 has the unusual locus "in the place quhair the hie poulpet is situat " (Home Writs, Hist. MSS. Comm.). A favourite place was on the tomb of the Regent Murray in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh, this altar- tomb being probably the most convenient counter or table on which to count the coin, after the removal of the altars.
J. G. WALLACE-JAMES, M.B. Haddington.
NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
The Tower of London. By Lord Ronald Sutherland
Gower, F.S.A. Vol. I. ( Bell & Sons.) NUMEROUS and important as are existing works on the Tower, there is always room for one more, and a welcome for it is certain also when, as in this case, it conies with such numerous and valuable illustrations. Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower's opening volume deals with the Tower during Norman, Plantagenet, and Tudor times ; that is, during the most interesting and picturesque, and also the most bloodthirsty period of its annals. He is safe in affirming that it would be vain to search any other city Rome itself not excepted for another such group of buildings, or to endeavour to match the historic interest or splendid record of the ancient Norman structure. With most that is vital in our national life and all that is superb in historical pageantry this building is associated, and there are no stories " of the death of kings " so sad as those which its walls could tell. The early records are, as Lord Ronald avows, meagre and scanty. With a purpose such as that by which he is animated of being accurate rather than picturesque, he h'nds the task impossible to infuse into them much life, movement, or interest. From the period of Edward 111. the case is different. Through the Wars of the Roses, and during the short reign of Richard III., the action is spirited enough, and during almost the entire period of Tudor rule the place is a shambles. Englishmen are wont to congratulate themselves upon the fact that their streets have witnessed few such scenes of ferocity and carnage as have polluted the fairest cities of France. In order to rival the bloodshed in the Tower of London under the five rulers of Tudor race for, child though he were, Edward VI. need not be exempted we should turn to the Courts of Dahomey or other savage countries of Africa. Interesting and absorbing enough is the story of the Tower at this point, and its cruel record which, so far as the present instalment is concerned, closes here will be kept up during the reign of James L, will be revived with the accession of James II., and will not lose all its brutality until after the massacres of 1746 and 1747. A history of the Tower, so far as it is now carried out, is neces- sarily a condensed history of the English monarchy. Lord Ronald begins, however, with a picturesque and topographical account of the various buildings and their environment from the first mention by Tacitus of London as a place of importance. This description, which occupies some four score pages, is accompanied by a series of admirable illustrations, taken by Messrs. Colls, most of them photogravure plates. The frontispiece consists of a coloured