Page:Origin and spread of the Tamils.djvu/78

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NOTES TO LECTURE I 67 is everything in favour of the indigenous origin. A study of the Tamil words for direction Kilakku or east shows a downward slope towards the ocean, and Merku or west signifying an upward place of the western ghats. It quite fits in with the conception of the people of the Indian Peninsula. (See V. Rangacharya, op. cit., pp. 70-71). 22. The family of South Indian languages was at one time styled by European writers Tamulian or Tamulic. In the first edition of A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages in 1856, Dr. Caldwell says that the term 'Dravidian' had been for some time used in almost as restricted a sense as that of Tamil itself ; but had been more or less distinctly used by Sanskrit philologists as a generic appellation for the South Indian peoples and their languages. He quotes in support the use of the term Andhra-Drāvida-Bhāşā by Kumārila Bhatta as meaning the language of the Tamil and Telugu countries. Dr. Burnell remarks that Kumārila's evident acquaintance with the Tamil language is worth notice and his application of the term Drāvida' as meaning Tamil is useful. (The Indian Antiquary for October, 1872.) Manu says (X, 43-44) that Drāviļas were Ksatriyas sunk into the state of Vrsalas (outcastes), like the Paundrakas, Odras, Kāmbojas, Yavanas, S'akas, Paradas, Pahlavas, Cinas, Kirātas, Daradas, and Khasas. Of the tribes here mentioned the only tribe belonging to Southern India is that of the Drávidas. This name, therefore, appears to have been supposed to denote the whole of the South Indian tribes. If any of those tribes were not intended to be included, it would probably be the Andhras, the Telugus of the interior, who had already been mentioned by name in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, and classed with Pundras, Sabaras, and Pulindas, as degraded descendants of Visvāmitra. The