at the corners if frequently handled. The uncut boards should be perfectly flat in order that ruling, printing, and cutting may be executed with accuracy. Guillotine cutting is not so satisfactory as cutting singly with a hand cutter or rotary cutting on a card cutting machine. The usual sizes of index boards are 20½ by 25½ inches and 30½ by 25½ inches, cutting to 5 by 3 inches, 6 by 4 inches and 8 by 5 inches.
India Proof Paper.—Thin paper made from the inner fibres of bamboo stems. Extremely soft and absorbent, it is therefore eminently suitable for taking full-bodied impressions in plate printing.
Insulating Papers.—For insulating wires for electric cables. See Anti-acid Manillas and Cable Papers.
Ivory Boards.—Hard, white, transparent boards, made from well-beaten stuff, the substance being obtained by bringing two or more webs of moist paper together, the junction being effected by rolling, no adhesive being employed. Ivories are obtainable in three or four substances, white or cream, and are used for high-class work, such as visiting, business, and menu cards. Stocked in royal boards, and also in various cut sizes.
Japanese Copying.—Specially thin and strong papers made in Japan from long fibres, used for copying books. Japanese papers are hand-made, the fibres pulped by hand, the sheets made on moulds of bamboo or hair. The length of fibre, precluding machine making, makes a paper of exceptional wearing qualities, the fibres pulling apart, and not tearing.
Japanese Vellum.—Thick papers made of Japanese fibres, very tough and durable, almost as difficult to tear as vellum. Finished with a good surface, suitable for certificates and various jobs where very tough and durable material is required. Stock sizes from crown to imperial; substance about 19, 28, 38 Ib. demy per ream of 500 sheets; price about 25. 3d. per Ib.
Kraft Papers.—"Kraft" means strength, and this is the characteristic of these papers. Unbleached wood pulp is the material used, and by prolonged boiling with soda under comparatively low pressure, the fibres receive less drastic chemical treatment than is usual in the