is upside down. If the paper is ruled or printed in the sheet, the pens and type or transfers should be arranged to keep the watermark the right way. In the case of folded and stitched work this is not possible without special watermarking, but for all stationery these precautions should be taken.
When judging paper or cards it must always be remembered that a sheet may compare very badly with a small piece, therefore when making comparisons the sizes of the samples of paper or card should be cut to the same size. Only by adopting this practice can weight, colour, and texture be judged accurately.
Choosing a paper suitable for the work in hand is simplified when one knows what is used for similar work. For ledgers, account books, and all work of that character, a strong, tough, well-finished paper, capable of taking writing ink easily, and able to bear ink after erasure should be used. An opaque all-rag, azure laid, tub-sized paper, of moderate weight, 34 Ib. in writing medium, is the most suitable paper. For loose-leaf ledgers a thinner, tougher paper is desirable, as the leaves must lie closely and withstand the strain of frequent handling. For cheap account book work engine-sized papers are obtainable, very fair in appearance, but not possessing all the qualities of the better paper specified, or the extra cost of the latter could not be justified.
The ideal paper for printed books is an all-rag paper, moderately sized, with antique or rough finish, excellent in handling and appearance, but the price precludes its use for any but the most luxurious editions. For ordinary bookwork, white paper with dull or machine finish, quite opaque, substance equal to 30 lb. demy, provides a serviceable paper where no illustrations, or line blocks only, appear. If half-tone