hold enough on society to restrain its conduct in some directions and elevate it in others. But these advantages are still, to an enormous extent, made use of in the division of the products of labor between the capitalists and the laborers, and, as a result, there is deep injustice in the industrial world. There has been some improvement in the past; the hopeful man sees reasons to believe in its continuance. Mr. Larned has a large faith: perceiving that this improvement has sprung from moral sources, from the slow working of juster ideas into juster conduct, he looks to the same sources for the higher progress of the future, and has been led to examine our institutions, to find out what readjustments are necessary.
Before we can follow an author, who has such a position to maintain, into the main body of his thesis, we are in self-defense bound to assure ourselves that he has an adequate conception of man's moral nature, and the working of moral forces. If he be defective here, his work must be unfruitful. Mr. Larned has spoken plainly and at length on the subject, and his views are so broad as to inspire a full confidence in his mental grasp and scientific culture. His discussion of this point is an excellent piece of exposition. The whole statement is clear and incisive, and there is about it that impressiveness which lodges a fact of grave import firmly in the mind. It is difficult to select any portion for quotation, owing to the logical connection between all its parts. We merely give here a conclusion that he arrives at, as it bears on what we have to say: "There is this order, as I believe, in the development of humanity: 1. Toward objective or sensuous intelligence; 2. Toward subjective or moral intelligence; 3. Toward the disciplining of the animal man to act in accord with his intelligence. The first of these will always be far in advance of the second; the second always in advance of the third; and yet the first and the second contribute steadily to the last, in which their whole divine purpose would seem to be consummated."
With this key given us, it is seen that the evolution of that justice which is ultimately to correct the most glaring iniquities in the relations of capitalists and laborers proceeds from the application of the accepted principles of morality to the facts attending those relations, and the deduction therefrom of higher rules of conduct. This means that the human mind has to pass through a period of moral enlightenment—a period marked by the extension of simple notions of right to the relationships in question. The average intellect does not move swiftly of its own accord to such a task, nor does it incline, by patient efforts of its own, to penetrate the darkness of a deep subject, for guidance to intelligent action. More courageous spirits must sift and analyze the material; must place by the side of the conclusions gathered together the teachings of the ethical system which humanity has worked out—and to time must be left the slow but inevitable adjustment of human conduct to the dictates of the higher intelligence thus spread abroad. The work before us is an attempt to do for its subject what has been hinted at as open to the investigator, adding to this a brief but suggestive inquiry into the changes in the machinery of industrial life which will insure to the laborers a larger share in the products of labor. In a word, it may be said to be the bringing together of the moral and economical aspects of the labor-question. A mere allusion to some of the various topics examined is all that our space leaves us.
The subjects first treated are of a general character, and are taken up to enable the author to elaborate the theoretic relation between capital and labor, deducible from primary principles. Under this head it is sought to roughly but fairly define the extent to which the advantages flowing from superior faculties may be legitimately exercised. Leading out of this theme is the allied one of the relative value of the faculties which contribute to production. If a fund is to be shared between the various contributors to it, Justice says, Let the principle of division be based on a comparison of the used energies and capabilities of the contributors. The products of labor are not divided on this principle now, and never will be until the millennium; but it is the ideal standard toward which we must tend. There is no justification in reason for the giant's share going to one class, as it actual-