Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 10.djvu/254

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in all nations; and it will also be of a special value to the scientific students of ethnology, not only for the breadth and care of its discussions, and the immense amount of information condensed in its text, but also for the copious wealth of its references to the literature and authorities of the subject.

No just idea of its broad range of interesting topics pertaining to the nature, characters, habits, and diversities of man, can be conveyed in a brief notice of the work. But, as its materials are derived from the most instructive portions of history, from the descriptions of races furnished by travelers, from wide geographical observation, and from the various sciences which illustrate the constitution of man and his intercourse with surrounding Nature, the facts brought forward have a very wide diversity of interest, so that we cannot dip into the volume anywhere without becoming quickly absorbed in the question under consideration.

The book is divided into two parts. In the introduction to the first part the author devotes himself to the question of man's place in creation, of the unity or plurality of the human race, of the place of its origin and the problem of its antiquity; then follows a series of disquisitions on the physical characters and the linguistic characters of man, and the industrial, social, and religious phases of his development. The second part is descriptive of the races of mankind, which are taken up in their leading divisions, and in their geographical distribution, and considered with as much detail as the limits of the work will allow. The book, of course, has nothing like the comprehensiveness or strictness of method and classification that characterizes Mr. Spencer's great work, "Descriptive Sociology;" nor has it the depth and completeness of analysis of social phenomena that mark the "Principles of Sociology" by the same author; but, as a résumé of the subject in a single handy volume, we have probably nothing so good in the language.

Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Published by authority of the Legislature of Ohio. 4 vols. Columbus: Nevins & Myers, State Printers.

The first geological information obtained concerning the State of Ohio was derived from a report made by a committee which took its observations in the summer of 1836. Geology was then a science in a preliminary stage of development, and the application of the existing knowledge was impeded by ignorance of the general outlines of the country. Paleontology was in much greater obscurity, and it is natural that the report of that period should seem imperfect at the present time.

In March, 1869, the Legislature passed a bill authorizing a complete survey of the State by a committee of competent men. In addition to a minute geological investigation, they were to make a careful chemical analysis, including a classification of the various soils, and the best means for promoting their utility; and were to take observations to determine the local causes producing variations of climate, etc.

The officers appointed were Prof. J. S. Newberry, chief geologist; Edward Orton and E. B. Andrews, assistant geologists; T. G. Wormley, chemist; F. B. Meek, paleontologist, besides a number of local assistants. They entered upon their work June 1, 1869, and finished it June 1, 1874, at a cost of $256,000, including the publication of four volumes of reports. For rapidity of action, thoroughness of results, and moderation in the expense, this survey contrasts most favorably with those made in other States. Thus far there have been published two volumes on geology and two on paleontology, with maps of some of the counties. In the volumes on paleontology there are a large number of plates and illustrations, which are admirable specimens of careful work and beauty. Ohio is rich in fossil remains, having contributed largely to the cabinets of other States, and this is the first occasion on which they have been presented to the public. The plan of the corps was to publish six volumes, two on geology, two on paleontology, one on economic geology, and one on zoölogy, botany, and agriculture. The last two volumes have not yet been published, though the work of composition is far advanced.

Surveys had been made previous to this one in many of the other States, which presented discrepancies that had given rise to much bitter discussion. It was, therefore, of importance that Ohio should be thoroughly explored, as it formed the key-