Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 10.djvu/256

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ties exist more self-poised and self-directed, more independent of the rest of the character, than we find them in women, with whom talent, however predominant, is in much greater degree modified by the sympathies and by moral causes." The Governor evades the question of suffrage for woman, but is adverse to her participation in public affairs. He cites Franklin as saying that "women should not meddle with party politics, except in the endeavor to reconcile their husbands, brothers, and friends, who happen to be of contrary sides;" and he reminds the listening ladies of the pleasantry of Addison, who remarked: "There is nothing so bad for the face as party zeal. It gives an ill-natured cast to the eye, and a disagreeable sourness to the look; besides that, it makes the lines too strong, and flushes them more than brandy."

The Kinematics of Machinery: Outlines of a Theory of Machines. By F. Reuleaux, Member of the Royal Trade Commission. Translated and edited by Alexander B. W. Kennedy, C. E., Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering in University College, London. With numerous Illustrations. London: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 622. Price, $7. 50.

The number of inventions during recent years has been so great that it is almost impossible to classify the different machines, or to observe any regular system connecting them. This country possesses no systematized instruction or extended literature in regard to machinery, and, although it has been peculiarly rich in inventions, the results would undoubtedly have been more satisfactory if they had been effected according to an arranged method. In this book the theoretical part of machinery alone is treated. The author attempts to give a thorough understanding of its essential nature, by which problems previously unsolvable may be made clear, and by which greater practical results may be reached. In his own words, his purpose is "to determine the conditions which are common to all machines in order to decide what it is, among its great variety of forms, that essentially constitutes a machine. . . . The book is intended, not so much to add to the positive knowledge of the mechanician, as to increase his understanding of what he already knows, so that it may become more 'thoroughly his own property.'" In the old books, each machine was taken up as a whole, and treated by itself. But, as it was discovered that similar parts occur in different machines, the method continually grew more simple. Prof. Reuleaux endeavors to place the science in a position in which it may become deductive, and in which the study may depend upon a few fundamental truths. With him, motion is but a change of position, and the changes are conditioned simply by the geometric form of the moving bodies.

In this volume fluids also take their place as forming a part of machinery, and instances are given in what forms engineers may use them to the greatest advantage. The work, which was written in German, has been published in Italian, and is now being translated into French.

The Ethics of Benedict de Spinoza. From the Latin, with an Introductory Sketch of his Life and Writings. New York: Van Nostrand. Pp. 375. Price, $3.00.

This volume has a peculiar interest in being the first American translation of the "Ethics" offered to the public. As it has been preceded by only one English translation, the book will supply a want in this country, and meet the demand of those who desire to obtain a clear idea of Spinoza's philosophy. The object which Spinoza had, in developing his system, was to discover certain rules by which he might govern his own actions. To accomplish this, he begins with a number of definitions and axioms from which his principles are evolved in regular geometrical order. The work is divided into five parts. In the first part is set forth his conception of God—an absolutely Infinite Being or substance, without beginning or end, and causa sui. Nothing can be thought of outside of God, and everything which exists does so through God. In the second part are treated the origin and nature of the human mind and soul. In the third, fourth, and fifth parts, an investigation is made of the passions, their causes and effects, their force and the manner in which they should be governed. The end arrived at is, that the pleasures of