Trinity." Under color of modifying some of the views enunciated in his first work, he now cast the concluding anathema against all tyrants of the Church, as a parting shot, and off he went to France, reaching Paris toward the end of 1532.
If Switzerland and Germany "were too hot for him," Roman Catholic France would have proved still hotter; but during the time he lived in that country he never made himself known save as "Monsieur Michel Villeneuve," from the town of his nativity. He entered as a student of mathematics and physics at one of the colleges of Paris, and lived very quietly. At a later period he took his degree of M. A. in the University of Paris.
But the study of mathematics had soon to be abandoned for present means of subsistence. After a short stay at Avignon and Orleans, Villeneuve betook himself to Lyons, then a great centre of learning. There he seems to have found ready employment as reader and corrector of the press, first, and afterward as editor in the celebrated printing-establishment of Trechsel Brothers. Among the works he edited for them, the "Geography of Ptolemy," enriched by extensive comments from him, can by no means be overlooked, connected as it is with the charges imputed to its editor, later on, in his trial at Geneva.
The reading-room of the printers of Lyons, and the acquaintance Servetus formed there with the great physician and naturalist, Dr. Champier, brought the former back from the empyrean of metaphysics to the earth, and put him in the way of becoming the geographer, astrologian, Biblical critic, physiologist, and physician, with whom we are made familiar in his subsequent life and writings. With the money he had saved in the two years spent with Trechsel, he went back to Paris (1536), and gave himself to the study of medicine. He became at once associated with scientists as distinguished as Andreas Vesalius, the creator of modern anatomy, and Joannes Guinterus; and in a singularly short time he obtained the degree of M. D. With the stimulus of necessity upon him, for he was poor, and the excitement of ambition, with which he was largely endowed, as he found it hard to earn a living by his profession, Servetus appeared before the world as lecturer on geography and astrology—which then embraced the true doctrine of the heavenly bodies, as well as the false one of their influence on the life of man; and in this capacity he achieved an enormous success. Next he came forward in connection with his profession by writing a book on "Medicinal Sirups and their Use," thus winning fame also as a physician. A fiery struggle was going on during the early part of the sixteenth century between the Averrhoists and the Galenists. Like his initiator into medical matters, Dr. Champier, Servetus was himself a Galenist; but in this character, too, he showed the independence of his nature, by having open eyes for any truth which the Arabian writers and their followers might present.
Servetus's fate on starting in life was opposition. Through supe-